Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease

Kasper E, Wegrzyn M, Marx I, Korp C, Kress W, Benecke R, Teipel SJ, Prudlo J (2014)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 15(1-2): 15-20.

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Abstract
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), Kennedy's disease, is an adult-onset hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, associated predominantly with a lower motor neuron syndrome and eventually endocrine and sensory disturbances. In contrast to other motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the impairment of cognition in SBMA is not well documented. We conducted a systematic cross-sectional neuropsychological study in order to investigate cognition in SBMA patients more thoroughly. We investigated 20 genetically proven SBMA patients compared to 20 age-and education-matched control subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, measuring executive functioning, attention, memory and visuospatial abilities. The SBMA patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls in three sub-tests in the executive and attention domains. This low performance was in the working memory (digit span backward task), verbal fluency category (single letter fluency task) and memory storage capacity (digit span forward task). No disturbances were detected in other cognitive domains. The impairments were subclinical and not relevant to the patients ' everyday functioning. In addition, no correlations were found between cognitive scores and the CAG repeat length. In conclusion, we found minor cognitive disturbances in patients with SBMA, which could indicate subtle frontal lobe dysfunction. These findings extend our neurobiological understanding of SBMA.
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Kasper E, Wegrzyn M, Marx I, et al. Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. 2014;15(1-2):15-20.
Kasper, E., Wegrzyn, M., Marx, I., Korp, C., Kress, W., Benecke, R., Teipel, S. J., et al. (2014). Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 15(1-2), 15-20.
Kasper, E., Wegrzyn, M., Marx, I., Korp, C., Kress, W., Benecke, R., Teipel, S. J., and Prudlo, J. (2014). Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 15, 15-20.
Kasper, E., et al., 2014. Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 15(1-2), p 15-20.
E. Kasper, et al., “Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease”, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, vol. 15, 2014, pp. 15-20.
Kasper, E., Wegrzyn, M., Marx, I., Korp, C., Kress, W., Benecke, R., Teipel, S.J., Prudlo, J.: Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. 15, 15-20 (2014).
Kasper, Elisabeth, Wegrzyn, Martin, Marx, Ivo, Korp, Christin, Kress, Wolfram, Benecke, Reiner, Teipel, Stefan J., and Prudlo, Johannes. “Minor cognitive disturbances in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Kennedy's disease”. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 15.1-2 (2014): 15-20.
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