Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering

Klewe C, Meinert M, Böhnke A, Kuepper K, Arenholz E, Gupta A, Schmalhorst J-M, Kuschel T, Reiss G (2014)
Journal of Applied Physics 115(12): 123903.

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Abstract
We fabricated NiFe2O4 thin films on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron co-sputtering in a pure oxygen atmosphere at different substrate temperatures. The film properties were investigated by various techniques with a focus on their structure, surface topography, magnetic characteristics, and transport properties. Structural analysis revealed a good crystallization with epitaxial growth and low roughness and a similar quality as in films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Electrical conductivity measurements showed high room temperature resistivity (12Xm), but low activation energy, indicating an extrinsic transport mechanism. A band gap of about 1.55 eV was found by optical spectroscopy. Detailed x-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed the samples to be ferrimagnetic with fully compensated Fe moments. By comparison with multiplet calculations of the spectra, we found that the cation valencies are to a large extent Ni2+ and Fe3+.
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Klewe C, Meinert M, Böhnke A, et al. Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering. Journal of Applied Physics. 2014;115(12): 123903.
Klewe, C., Meinert, M., Böhnke, A., Kuepper, K., Arenholz, E., Gupta, A., Schmalhorst, J. - M., et al. (2014). Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering. Journal of Applied Physics, 115(12): 123903.
Klewe, C., Meinert, M., Böhnke, A., Kuepper, K., Arenholz, E., Gupta, A., Schmalhorst, J. - M., Kuschel, T., and Reiss, G. (2014). Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering. Journal of Applied Physics 115:123903.
Klewe, C., et al., 2014. Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering. Journal of Applied Physics, 115(12): 123903.
C. Klewe, et al., “Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering”, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 115, 2014, : 123903.
Klewe, C., Meinert, M., Böhnke, A., Kuepper, K., Arenholz, E., Gupta, A., Schmalhorst, J.-M., Kuschel, T., Reiss, G.: Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering. Journal of Applied Physics. 115, : 123903 (2014).
Klewe, Christoph, Meinert, Markus, Böhnke, Alexander, Kuepper, Karsten, Arenholz, Elke, Gupta, Arunava, Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael, Kuschel, Timo, and Reiss, Günter. “Physical characteristics and cation distribution of NiFe2O4 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering”. Journal of Applied Physics 115.12 (2014): 123903.
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