Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*

Markert B, Stolzenberger J, Brautaset T, Wendisch VF (2014)
BMC Microbiology 14(7).

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Abstract
Background Transketolase (TKT) is a key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the Calvin cycle and the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle. Bacillus methanolicus is a facultative RuMP pathway methylotroph. B. methanolicus MGA3 harbors two genes putatively coding for TKTs; one located on the chromosome (tktC) and one located on the natural occurring plasmid pBM19 (tktP). Results Both enzymes were produced in recombinant Escherichia coli, purified and shown to share similar biochemical parameters in vitro. They were found to be active as homotetramers and require thiamine pyrophosphate for catalytic activity. The inactive apoform of the TKTs, yielded by dialysis against buffer containing 10 mM EDTA, could be reconstituted most efficiently with Mn2+ and Mg2+. Both TKTs were thermo stable at physiological temperature (up to 65°C) with the highest activity at neutral pH. Ni2+, ATP and ADP significantly inhibited activity of both TKTs. Unlike the recently characterized RuMP pathway enzymes fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase/sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase (FBPase/SBPase) from B. methanolicus MGA3, both TKTs exhibited similar kinetic parameters although they only share 76% identical amino acids. The kinetic parameters were determined for the reaction with the substrates xylulose 5-phosphate (TKTC: kcat/KM: 264 s-1 mM-1; TKTP: kcat/KM: 231 s-1 mM) and ribulose 5-phosphate (TKTC: kcat/KM: 109 s-1 mM; TKTP: kcat/KM: 84 s-1 mM) as well as for the reaction with the substrates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (TKTC: kcat/KM: 108 s-1 mM; TKTP: kcat/KM: 71 s-1 mM) and fructose 6-phosphate (TKTC kcat/KM: 115 s-1 mM; TKTP: kcat/KM: 448 s-1 mM). Conclusions Based on the kinetic parameters no major TKT of B. methanolicus could be determined. Increased expression of tktP, but not of tktC during growth with methanol [J Bacteriol 188:3063–3072, 2006] argues for TKTP being the major TKT relevant in the RuMP pathway. Neither TKT exhibited activity as dihydroxyacetone synthase, as found in methylotrophic yeast, or as the evolutionary related 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. The biological significance of the two TKTs for B. methanolicus methylotrophy is discussed.
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Markert B, Stolzenberger J, Brautaset T, Wendisch VF. Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*. BMC Microbiology. 2014;14(7).
Markert, B., Stolzenberger, J., Brautaset, T., & Wendisch, V. F. (2014). Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*. BMC Microbiology, 14(7).
Markert, B., Stolzenberger, J., Brautaset, T., and Wendisch, V. F. (2014). Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*. BMC Microbiology 14.
Markert, B., et al., 2014. Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*. BMC Microbiology, 14(7).
B. Markert, et al., “Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*”, BMC Microbiology, vol. 14, 2014.
Markert, B., Stolzenberger, J., Brautaset, T., Wendisch, V.F.: Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*. BMC Microbiology. 14, (2014).
Markert, Benno, Stolzenberger, Jessica, Brautaset, Trygve, and Wendisch, Volker F. “Characterization of two transketolases encoded on the chromosome and the plasmid pBM19 of the facultative ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph *Bacillus methanolicus*”. BMC Microbiology 14.7 (2014).
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Methylotrophy in the thermophilic Bacillus methanolicus, basic insights and application for commodity production from methanol.
Muller JE, Heggeset TM, Wendisch VF, Vorholt JA, Brautaset T., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 99(2), 2015
PMID: 25431011

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