Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011

Khan MH, Zanuzdana A, Krämer A (2013)
PLoS ONE 8(9): e75261.

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Journal Article | Original Article | Published | English
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although Bangladesh has already achieved noticeable progress in the field of development and health, disparities in public health indicators for several markers are still reported. To assess public health development in Bangladesh during the last two decades, firstly, we analysed levels, trends and disparities in public-health-related indicators by rural versus urban as well as by the richest versus poorest group of women who have ever been married. Secondly, using the most recent data set we performed multiple analyses to check whether urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities were still significant. METHODS: The analysis was based on six nationally representative data sets from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) conducted in 1993-94 (n=9,640), 1996-1997 (n=9,127), 1999-2000 (n=10,544), 2004 (n=11,440), 2007 (n=10,996) and 2011 (n=17,749). The outcome variables were six selected public-health-related indicators. We performed various types of analyses, including multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: The trend of all indicators except being overweight (1993-2011) displayed gradual improvements for both markers. However, the urban and richest groups revealed a better situation than their counterparts in both simple and multiple analyses. Disparities between richest-poorest groups were more pronounced than urban-rural disparities. For instance, the prevalence of delivery at any healthcare facility in 2011 was 20.4% in rural areas and 46.5% in urban areas, whereas it was 9.1% in the poorest group and 57.6% in the richest group. CONCLUSION: The public health sector in Bangladesh has achieved some successes over the last two decades. However, urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities are still considerable and therefore more public health strategies and efforts are clearly needed for the rural and poorest groups of women in order to reduce these gaps further.
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Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publication Fund of Bielefeld University.
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Khan MH, Zanuzdana A, Krämer A. Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(9):e75261.
Khan, M. H., Zanuzdana, A., & Krämer, A. (2013). Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e75261. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075261
Khan, M. H., Zanuzdana, A., and Krämer, A. (2013). Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011. PLoS ONE 8, e75261.
Khan, M.H., Zanuzdana, A., & Krämer, A., 2013. Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011. PLoS ONE, 8(9), p e75261.
M.H. Khan, A. Zanuzdana, and A. Krämer, “Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011”, PLoS ONE, vol. 8, 2013, pp. e75261.
Khan, M.H., Zanuzdana, A., Krämer, A.: Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011. PLoS ONE. 8, e75261 (2013).
Khan, Mobarak Hossain, Zanuzdana, Arina, and Krämer, Alexander. “Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011”. PLoS ONE 8.9 (2013): e75261.
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