The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds

Fröhlich J, Wachsmuth I (2013)
In: Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments. Shumaker R (Ed); Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8021. 159-168.

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Book Chapter | Published | English
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Shumaker, Randall
Abstract
In order to make a step further towards understanding the impact of multi-modal stimuli in Virtual Reality we conducted a user study with 80 participants performing tasks in a virtual pit environment. Participants were divided into four groups, each presented a different combination of multi-sensory stimuli. Those included real-time 3D graphics, audio stimuli (ambient, static and event sounds), and haptics consisting of wind and tactile feedback when touching objects. A presence questionnaire was used to evaluate subjectively reported presence on the one hand, and on the other physiological sensors were used to measure heart rate and skin conductance as an objective measure. Results strongly indicate that an increase of modalities does not automatically result in an increase of presence.
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Fröhlich J, Wachsmuth I. The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds. In: Shumaker R, ed. Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol 8021. 2013: 159-168.
Fröhlich, J., & Wachsmuth, I. (2013). The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds. In R. Shumaker (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 8021. Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments (pp. 159-168).
Fröhlich, J., and Wachsmuth, I. (2013). “The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds” in Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments, ed. R. Shumaker Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8021, 159-168.
Fröhlich, J., & Wachsmuth, I., 2013. The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds. In R. Shumaker, ed. Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. no.8021 pp. 159-168.
J. Fröhlich and I. Wachsmuth, “The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds”, Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments, R. Shumaker, ed., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8021, 2013, pp.159-168.
Fröhlich, J., Wachsmuth, I.: The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds. In: Shumaker, R. (ed.) Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8021, p. 159-168. (2013).
Fröhlich, Julia, and Wachsmuth, Ipke. “The visual, the auditory and the haptic – A user study on combining modalities in virtual worlds”. Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments. Ed. Randall Shumaker. 2013.Vol. 8021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 159-168.
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