Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries

Chu JJQ, Wörmann T, Popp J, Paetzelt G, Akmatov MK, Krämer A, Reintjes R (2013)
The European Journal Of Public Health 23(4): 642-647.

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Abstract
Background: Increased migration volume and different Hepatitis B prevalence between immigration and emigration countries have changed the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) epidemiology considerably in Northern and North-Western European migrants-receiving countries. Due to the difference in migration status monitoring, the HBV infection data on migrants are not easily comparable among those countries. The study aims were: to compare the migration status indicators used by the national surveillance system in six Northern and North-Western European countries (the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Denmark, Sweden and the UK); to determine the impact of the migration status on HBV infection by comparing the available data on prevalence and transmission routes of Hepatitis B in the migration and the general population in the six countries; to recommend sensible indicators and pertinent measures for HBV infection surveillance and control in the region. Methods: Literature review, statistical data analysis on migration and HBV infection in the six countries; expert interviews to identify migration status indicators used in national surveillance systems. Results: Evident differences were found between the migration and the general population in Hepatitis B prevalence and transmission routes in the six countries. Migration status is monitored differently in six surveillance systems; immigrants from high/intermediate Hepatitis B endemic countries constitute a substantial proportion of HBsAg(+) and chronic cases in all six countries. Conclusions: International migration has an obvious impact on Hepatitis B prevalence in the six countries. It is important to include common migration status indicators and to collect comparable data for HBV infection surveillance in different notification systems.
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Chu JJQ, Wörmann T, Popp J, et al. Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries. The European Journal Of Public Health. 2013;23(4):642-647.
Chu, J. J. Q., Wörmann, T., Popp, J., Paetzelt, G., Akmatov, M. K., Krämer, A., & Reintjes, R. (2013). Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries. The European Journal Of Public Health, 23(4), 642-647.
Chu, J. J. Q., Wörmann, T., Popp, J., Paetzelt, G., Akmatov, M. K., Krämer, A., and Reintjes, R. (2013). Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries. The European Journal Of Public Health 23, 642-647.
Chu, J.J.Q., et al., 2013. Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries. The European Journal Of Public Health, 23(4), p 642-647.
J.J.Q. Chu, et al., “Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries”, The European Journal Of Public Health, vol. 23, 2013, pp. 642-647.
Chu, J.J.Q., Wörmann, T., Popp, J., Paetzelt, G., Akmatov, M.K., Krämer, A., Reintjes, R.: Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries. The European Journal Of Public Health. 23, 642-647 (2013).
Chu, Janet JunQing, Wörmann, Tanja, Popp, Johann, Paetzelt, Gunnar, Akmatov, Manas K., Krämer, Alexander, and Reintjes, Ralf. “Changing epidemiology of Hepatitis B and migration-a comparison of six Northern and North-Western European countries”. The European Journal Of Public Health 23.4 (2013): 642-647.
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