Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

Sattler S, Forlini C, Racine É, Sauer C (2013)
PLoS ONE 8(8).

Download
OA
Journal Article | Published | English
Author
; ; ;
Abstract
Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.
Publishing Year
ISSN
eISSN
Financial disclosure
Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publication Fund of Bielefeld University.
PUB-ID

Cite this

Sattler S, Forlini C, Racine É, Sauer C. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8).
Sattler, S., Forlini, C., Racine, É., & Sauer, C. (2013). Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement. PLoS ONE, 8(8).
Sattler, S., Forlini, C., Racine, É., and Sauer, C. (2013). Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement. PLoS ONE 8.
Sattler, S., et al., 2013. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement. PLoS ONE, 8(8).
S. Sattler, et al., “Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement”, PLoS ONE, vol. 8, 2013.
Sattler, S., Forlini, C., Racine, É., Sauer, C.: Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement. PLoS ONE. 8, (2013).
Sattler, Sebastian, Forlini, Cynthia, Racine, Éric, and Sauer, Carsten. “Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement”. PLoS ONE 8.8 (2013).
Main File(s)
Access Level
OA Open Access
Last Uploaded
2013-08-19 09:05:15

This data publication is cited in the following publications:
This publication cites the following data publications:

87 References

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.


AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0
Using social networks to understand and prevent substance use: a transdisciplinary perspective.
Valente TW, Gallaher P, Mouttapa M., Subst Use Misuse 39(10-12), 2004
PMID: 15587948

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0
Predicting dishonest actions using the theory of planned behavior
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 1991
The interplay of moral norms and instrumental incentives in crime causation
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2010
Expected utility, self-control, morality, and criminal probability
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2010
Overcorrecting the neuroenhancement discussion.
Farah MJ., Addiction 106(6), 2011
PMID: 21564378
Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: a systematic review of the literature.
Wilens TE, Adler LA, Adams J, Sgambati S, Rotrosen J, Sawtelle R, Utzinger L, Fusillo S., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47(1), 2008
PMID: 18174822
University students' perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2002
Approaches to teaching design subjects: a quantitative analysis
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2002
The Impact of Anonymity on Responses to Sensitive Questions
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2000
Sensitive questions in surveys.
Tourangeau R, Yan T., Psychol Bull 133(5), 2007
PMID: 17723033

Export

0 Marked Publications

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

View record in Web of Science®

Sources

PMID: 23940757
PubMed | Europe PMC

Search this title in

Google Scholar