The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations

Roelle J, Berthold K (2013)
Instructional Science 41(4): 635-656.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Abstract
Providing prompts to induce focused processing of the central contents of instructional explanations is a promising instructional means to support novice learners in learning from instructional explanations. However, within research on the expertise reversal effect it has been shown that instructional means that are beneficial for novices can be detrimental for learners with more expertise if the instructional means provide guidance that overlaps with the internal guidance provided by the prior knowledge of learners with more expertise. Under such circumstances, prompts to induce focused processing might even be detrimental for learners with expertise whose prior knowledge already provides internal guidance to learn from explanations. On this basis, we aimed at experimentally varying expertise by developing prior knowledge. Specifically, we used a preparation intervention with contrasting cases to enhance learners' prior knowledge (expertise). Against this background, we tested 71 university students in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design: (a) Factor of expertise. Working with contrasting cases to develop prior knowledge and expertise to provide internal guidance to learn from instructional explanations (with vs. without), (b) Factor of prompts. Prompts to induce focused processing of the explanations (with vs. without). The results showed that prompts to induce focused processing fostered conceptual knowledge for novice learners whereas prompts hindered the acquisition of conceptual knowledge for learners with expertise that was developed by working with contrasting cases beforehand. Moreover, measures of subjective cognitive load and learning processes suggest that the instructional guidance provided by prompts compensated for the low internal guidance of novice learners and overlapped with the internal guidance of learners with expertise.
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Roelle J, Berthold K. The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations. Instructional Science. 2013;41(4):635-656.
Roelle, J., & Berthold, K. (2013). The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations. Instructional Science, 41(4), 635-656.
Roelle, J., and Berthold, K. (2013). The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations. Instructional Science 41, 635-656.
Roelle, J., & Berthold, K., 2013. The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations. Instructional Science, 41(4), p 635-656.
J. Roelle and K. Berthold, “The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations”, Instructional Science, vol. 41, 2013, pp. 635-656.
Roelle, J., Berthold, K.: The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations. Instructional Science. 41, 635-656 (2013).
Roelle, Julian, and Berthold, Kirsten. “The expertise reversal effect in prompting focused processing of instructional explanations”. Instructional Science 41.4 (2013): 635-656.
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