Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1

Hübner W, Chen P, Del Portillo A, Liu Y, Gordon RE, Chen BK (2007)
Journal of virology 81(22): 12596-12607.

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Abstract
The assembly of infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires that Gag transport and oligomerization be coordinated with its association with other viral proteins, viral RNAs, and cellular membranes. We have developed a replication-competent HIV type 1 molecular clone that carries a Gag-internal or interdomain green fluorescent protein (iGFP) fusion to reveal a physiologically accurate temporal sequence of Gag localization and oligomerization during the formation of infectious HIV. This recombinant HIV is as infectious as native HIV in single-round infectivity assays, validating its use for trafficking studies. It replicates robustly in permissive MT4 cells and is infectious, yet it spreads poorly in other T-cell lines. Immunofluorescence of Gag-iGFP showed a pattern very similar to that of native Gag. However, the intense plasma membrane Gag-iGFP fluorescence contrasts markedly with its immunofluorescence at this site, indicating that many Gag epitopes can be masked by oligomerization. Consistent with this, fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies visualized intense Gag oligomerization at the plasma membrane and weaker oligomerization at cytoplasmic sites. Four-dimensional, time-lapse confocal imaging reveals a temporal progression of Gag distribution over hours in which Gag is initially diffusely localized within the cytoplasm. Plasma membrane signals then accumulate as Gag levels increase and vesicular association appears late, only after plasma membrane site signals have reached high intensity. Lastly, the cell rounds up and HIV protease activation induces diffuse fluorescence throughout the cell. These distinct phases reveal a natural progression of Gag trafficking during the viral gene expression program. HIV Gag-iGFP is a useful tool for dissecting mechanisms of viral assembly and transmission.
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Hübner W, Chen P, Del Portillo A, Liu Y, Gordon RE, Chen BK. Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1. Journal of virology. 2007;81(22):12596-12607.
Hübner, W., Chen, P., Del Portillo, A., Liu, Y., Gordon, R. E., & Chen, B. K. (2007). Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1. Journal of virology, 81(22), 12596-12607. doi:10.1128/JVI.01088-07
Hübner, W., Chen, P., Del Portillo, A., Liu, Y., Gordon, R. E., and Chen, B. K. (2007). Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1. Journal of virology 81, 12596-12607.
Hübner, W., et al., 2007. Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1. Journal of virology, 81(22), p 12596-12607.
W. Hübner, et al., “Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1”, Journal of virology, vol. 81, 2007, pp. 12596-12607.
Hübner, W., Chen, P., Del Portillo, A., Liu, Y., Gordon, R.E., Chen, B.K.: Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1. Journal of virology. 81, 12596-12607 (2007).
Hübner, Wolfgang, Chen, Ping, Del Portillo, Armando, Liu, Yuxin, Gordon, Ronald E, and Chen, Benjamin K. “Sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag localization and oligomerization monitored with live confocal imaging of a replication-competent, fluorescently tagged HIV-1”. Journal of virology 81.22 (2007): 12596-12607.
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