A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control

Lütkemeier S, Jungeblut T, Berge HKO, Aunet S, Porrmann M, Rückert U (2013)
IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits 48(1): 8-19.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Abstract
An energy-efficient SoC with 32 b subthreshold RISC processor cores, 32 kB conventional cache memory, and 9T ultra-low voltage (ULV) SRAM based on a flexible and extensible architecture was fabricated on a 2.7 mm(2) test chip in 65 nm low power CMOS. The processor cores are based on a custom standard cell library that was designed using a multiobjective approach to optimize noise margins, switching energy, and propagation delay simultaneously. The cores operate over a supply voltage range from 200 mV (best samples) to 1.2 V with clock frequencies from 10 kHz to 94 MHz at room temperature. The lowest energy consumption per cycle of 9.94 pJ is observed at 325 mV and 133 kHz. A 2 kb ULV SRAM macro achieves minimum energy per operation at averages of 321 mV (0.030 sigma/mu), 567 fJ (0.037 sigma/mu), and 730 kHz (0.184 sigma/mu), for equal number of 32 b read/write operations. The off-chip performance and power management subsystem provides dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) combined with an adaptive supply voltage generation for dynamic PVT compensation.
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Lütkemeier S, Jungeblut T, Berge HKO, Aunet S, Porrmann M, Rückert U. A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control. IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits. 2013;48(1):8-19.
Lütkemeier, S., Jungeblut, T., Berge, H. K. O., Aunet, S., Porrmann, M., & Rückert, U. (2013). A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control. IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, 48(1), 8-19.
Lütkemeier, S., Jungeblut, T., Berge, H. K. O., Aunet, S., Porrmann, M., and Rückert, U. (2013). A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control. IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits 48, 8-19.
Lütkemeier, S., et al., 2013. A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control. IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, 48(1), p 8-19.
S. Lütkemeier, et al., “A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control”, IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 48, 2013, pp. 8-19.
Lütkemeier, S., Jungeblut, T., Berge, H.K.O., Aunet, S., Porrmann, M., Rückert, U.: A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control. IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits. 48, 8-19 (2013).
Lütkemeier, Sven, Jungeblut, Thorsten, Berge, Hans Kristian Otnes, Aunet, Snorre, Porrmann, Mario, and Rückert, Ulrich. “A 65 nm 32 b Subthreshold Processor With 9T Multi-Vt SRAM and Adaptive Supply Voltage Control”. IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits 48.1 (2013): 8-19.
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