Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation

Glaser T (2013)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews 257(1): 140-152.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Abstract
The meta-phenylene unit is an efficient ferromagnetic coupler in organic chemistry and has been used to develop high spin organic molecules. The ferromagnetic interactions arise from the spin-polarization mechanism. The transfer of this heuristic concept to coordination chemistry has been evaluated using different meta-phenylene bridging ligands by several groups and is not so straightforward. We are interested in using 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol) as an efficient ferromagnetic coupler between 3d transition metal ions. We have attached substituted imine groups in 2,4,6-position to enhance the stability of trinuclear complexes by the chelate effect. Trinuclear Cu-II and V-IV complexes of these extended phloroglucinol ligands are indeed ferromagnetically coupled but with coupling constants J not exceeding +3 cm(-1). Moreover, trinuclear Fe-III complexes are almost uncoupled and trinuclear Mn-III complexes as well as trinuclear Mn-III subunits in complexes of higher nuclearity exhibit weak antiferromagnetic coupling. NMR, structural studies, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy demonstrate that the extended phloroglucinol ligands are not in the expected O-tautomeric form but in the N-tautomeric form with the prevalence of a keto-enamine resonance structure. This electronic structure is reminiscent of [6]radialenes and has been termed heteroradialenes. These heteroradialenes are not delocalized aromatic systems but cross-conjugated alicycles. Thus, the low coupling in the complexes of the extended phloroglucinol ligands can be correlated with this heteroradialene formation. The alicyclic backbone of a heteroradialene has no delocalized pi system to transmit the spin-polarization mechanism. The realization of the heteroradialene formation provides us with a handle to optimize the extended phloroglucinol ligands by substituting the imine groups with saturated amine groups, which cannot undergo an enolimine-ketoenamine tautomery. The NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopic features of saturated triamine derivatives clearly establish the delocalized aromatic character of the central phloroglucinol unit without any indication for a heteroradialene formation. These extended phloroglucinol ligands of the second generation are promising candidates as more efficient ferromagnetic couplers in coordination chemistry. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Glaser T. Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 2013;257(1):140-152.
Glaser, T. (2013). Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257(1), 140-152.
Glaser, T. (2013). Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews 257, 140-152.
Glaser, T., 2013. Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 257(1), p 140-152.
T. Glaser, “Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation”, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 257, 2013, pp. 140-152.
Glaser, T.: Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 257, 140-152 (2013).
Glaser, Thorsten. “Exchange coupling mediated by extended phloroglucinol ligands: Spin-polarization vs. heteroradialene-formation”. Coordination Chemistry Reviews 257.1 (2013): 140-152.
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