Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides

Zaprasis A, Brill J, Thüring M, Wünsche G, Heun M, Barzantny H, Hoffmann T, Bremer E (2013)
Applied and environmental microbiology 79(2): 576-587.

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Abstract
Bacillus subtilis can attain cellular protection against the detrimental effects of high osmolarity through osmotically induced de novo synthesis and uptake of the compatible solute l-proline. We have now found that B. subtilis can also exploit exogenously provided proline-containing peptides of various lengths and compositions as osmoprotectants. Osmoprotection by these types of peptides is generally dependent on their import via the peptide transport systems (Dpp, Opp, App, and DtpT) operating in B. subtilis and relies on their hydrolysis to liberate proline. The effectiveness with which proline-containing peptides confer osmoprotection varies considerably, and this can be correlated with the amount of the liberated and subsequently accumulated free proline by the osmotically stressed cell. Through gene disruption experiments, growth studies, and the quantification of the intracellular proline pool, we have identified the PapA (YqhT) and PapB (YkvY) peptidases as responsible for the hydrolysis of various types of Xaa-Pro dipeptides and Xaa-Pro-Xaa tripeptides. The PapA and PapB peptidases possess overlapping substrate specificities. In contrast, osmoprotection by peptides of various lengths and compositions with a proline residue positioned at their N terminus was not affected by defects in the PapA and PapB peptidases. Taken together, our data provide new insight into the physiology of the osmotic stress response of B. subtilis. They illustrate the flexibility of this ubiquitously distributed microorganism to effectively exploit environmental resources in its acclimatization to sustained high-osmolarity surroundings through the accumulation of compatible solutes.
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Zaprasis A, Brill J, Thüring M, et al. Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2013;79(2):576-587.
Zaprasis, A., Brill, J., Thüring, M., Wünsche, G., Heun, M., Barzantny, H., Hoffmann, T., et al. (2013). Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides. Applied and environmental microbiology, 79(2), 576-587. doi:10.1128/AEM.01934-12
Zaprasis, A., Brill, J., Thüring, M., Wünsche, G., Heun, M., Barzantny, H., Hoffmann, T., and Bremer, E. (2013). Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides. Applied and environmental microbiology 79, 576-587.
Zaprasis, A., et al., 2013. Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides. Applied and environmental microbiology, 79(2), p 576-587.
A. Zaprasis, et al., “Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides”, Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 79, 2013, pp. 576-587.
Zaprasis, A., Brill, J., Thüring, M., Wünsche, G., Heun, M., Barzantny, H., Hoffmann, T., Bremer, E.: Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides. Applied and environmental microbiology. 79, 576-587 (2013).
Zaprasis, Adrienne, Brill, Jeanette, Thüring, Marietta, Wünsche, Guido, Heun, Magnus, Barzantny, Helena, Hoffmann, Tamara, and Bremer, Erhard. “Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides”. Applied and environmental microbiology 79.2 (2013): 576-587.
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