Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics

Bazavov A, Ding H, Hegde P, Kaczmarek O, Karsch F, Laermann E, Mukherjee S, Petreczky P, Schmidt C, Smith D, Söldner W, et al. (2012)
Physical Review Letters 109(19).

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Abstract
We present a determination of chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions based on ratios of cumulants of net electric charge fluctuations. These ratios can reliably be calculated in lattice QCD for a wide range of chemical potential values by using a next-to-leading order Taylor series expansion around the limit of vanishing baryon, electric charge and strangeness chemical potentials. From a computation of up to fourth order cumulants and charge correlations we first determine the strangeness and electric charge chemical potentials that characterize freeze-out conditions in a heavy ion collision and confirm that in the temperature range 150 MeV < T < 170 MeV the hadron resonance gas model provides good approximations for these parameters that agree with QCD calculations on the (5-15)% level. We then show that a comparison of lattice QCD results for ratios of up to third order cumulants of electric charge fluctuations with experimental results allows to extract the freeze-out baryon chemical potential and the freeze-out temperature.
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Bazavov A, Ding H, Hegde P, et al. Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics. Physical Review Letters. 2012;109(19).
Bazavov, A., Ding, H., Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, O., Karsch, F., Laermann, E., Mukherjee, S., et al. (2012). Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics. Physical Review Letters, 109(19).
Bazavov, A., Ding, H., Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, O., Karsch, F., Laermann, E., Mukherjee, S., Petreczky, P., Schmidt, C., Smith, D., et al. (2012). Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics. Physical Review Letters 109.
Bazavov, A., et al., 2012. Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics. Physical Review Letters, 109(19).
A. Bazavov, et al., “Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics”, Physical Review Letters, vol. 109, 2012.
Bazavov, A., Ding, H., Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, O., Karsch, F., Laermann, E., Mukherjee, S., Petreczky, P., Schmidt, C., Smith, D., Söldner, W., Wagner, M.: Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics. Physical Review Letters. 109, (2012).
Bazavov, A., Ding, Hengtong, Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, Olaf, Karsch, Frithjof, Laermann, Edwin, Mukherjee, Swagato, Petreczky, P., Schmidt, Christian, Smith, D., Söldner, Wolfgang, and Wagner, Mathias. “Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics”. Physical Review Letters 109.19 (2012).
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QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives.
Brambilla N, Eidelman S, Foka P, Gardner S, Kronfeld AS, Alford MG, Alkofer R, Butenschoen M, Cohen TD, Erdmenger J, Fabbietti L, Faber M, Goity JL, Ketzer B, Lin HW, Llanes-Estrada FJ, Meyer HB, Pakhlov P, Pallante E, Polikarpov MI, Sazdjian H, Schmitt A, Snow WM, Vairo A, Vogt R, Vuorinen A, Wittig H, Arnold P, Christakoglou P, Di Nezza P, Fodor Z, Garcia I Tormo X, Hollwieser R, Janik MA, Kalweit A, Keane D, Kiritsis E, Mischke A, Mizuk R, Odyniec G, Papadodimas K, Pich A, Pittau R, Qiu JW, Ricciardi G, Salgado CA, Schwenzer K, Stefanis NG, von Hippel GM, Zakharov VI., Eur Phys J C Part Fields 74(10), 2014
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