Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

Chen X, Kohl TA, Rückert C, Rodionov DA, Li L-H, Ding J-Y, Kalinowski J, Liu S-J (2012)
Applied and environmental microbiology 78(16): 5796-5804.

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Abstract
The industrially important organism Corynebacterium glutamicum has been characterized in recent years for its robust ability to assimilate aromatic compounds. In this study, C. glutamicum strain AS 1.542 was investigated for its ability to catabolize phenylacetic acid (PAA). The paa genes were identified; they are organized as a continuous paa gene cluster. The type strain of C. glutamicum, ATCC 13032, is not able to catabolize PAA, but the recombinant strain ATCC 13032/pEC-K18mob2::paa gained the ability to grow on PAA. The paaR gene, encoding a TetR family transcription regulator, was studied in detail. Disruption of paaR in strain AS 1.542 resulted in transcriptional increases of all paa genes. Transcription start sites and putative promoter regions were determined. An imperfect palindromic motif (5'-ACTNACCGNNCGNNCGGTNAGT-3'; 22 bp) was identified in the upstream regions of paa genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated specific binding of PaaR to this motif, and phenylacetyl coenzyme A (PA-CoA) blocked binding. It was concluded that PaaR is the negative regulator of PAA degradation and that PA-CoA is the PaaR effector. In addition, GlxR binding sites were found, and binding to GlxR was confirmed. Therefore, PAA catabolism in C. glutamicum is regulated by the pathway-specific repressor PaaR, and also likely by the global transcription regulator GlxR. By comparative genomic analysis, we reconstructed orthologous PaaR regulons in 57 species, including species of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, that carry PAA utilization genes and operate by conserved binding motifs, suggesting that PaaR-like regulation might commonly exist in these bacteria.
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Chen X, Kohl TA, Rückert C, et al. Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2012;78(16):5796-5804.
Chen, X., Kohl, T. A., Rückert, C., Rodionov, D. A., Li, L. - H., Ding, J. - Y., Kalinowski, J., et al. (2012). Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Applied and environmental microbiology, 78(16), 5796-5804.
Chen, X., Kohl, T. A., Rückert, C., Rodionov, D. A., Li, L. - H., Ding, J. - Y., Kalinowski, J., and Liu, S. - J. (2012). Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Applied and environmental microbiology 78, 5796-5804.
Chen, X., et al., 2012. Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Applied and environmental microbiology, 78(16), p 5796-5804.
X. Chen, et al., “Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum”, Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 78, 2012, pp. 5796-5804.
Chen, X., Kohl, T.A., Rückert, C., Rodionov, D.A., Li, L.-H., Ding, J.-Y., Kalinowski, J., Liu, S.-J.: Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Applied and environmental microbiology. 78, 5796-5804 (2012).
Chen, Xi, Kohl, Thomas A, Rückert, Christian, Rodionov, Dmitry A, Li, Ling-Hao, Ding, Jiu-Yuan, Kalinowski, Jörn, and Liu, Shuang-Jiang. “Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum”. Applied and environmental microbiology 78.16 (2012): 5796-5804.
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