Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia

Djamali M, Brewer S, Breckle S, Jackson ST (2012)
Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 207(4): 237-249.

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Abstract
This study investigates the role of climate in determining phytogeographic regions, focusing particularly on the lrano-Turanian floristic region in SW and Central Asia. A set of simple climatic variables and bioclimatic indices were used to prepare climate-space scatter plots and climate diagrams. The climate data were also subjected to multivariate analyses (PCA and Regression tree) in order to develop a bioclimatic characterization of the Irano-Turanian region in comparison with the adjacent Mediterranean, Saharo-Sindian, Euro-Siberian, and Central-Asiatic regions. Phytogeographic regions of SW and Central Asia display distinct bioclimatic spaces with small overlaps. The Irano-Turanian region is differentiated from surrounding regions by continentality, winter temperature, and precipitation seasonality. Continentality is the most important bioclimatic factor in differentiating it from the Mediterranean and Saharo-Sindian regions and is responsible for floristic differences among sub-regions of the Irano-Turanian region. In our case study, the Irano-Turanian region is a nearly independent bioclimatic unit, distinct from its surrounding regions. Hence, it is suggested that the term "Irano-Turanian bioclimate" be used to describe the climate of most of the continental Middle East and Central Asia. Among different sub-regions, the west-central part of this floristic region ("IT2 sub-region") is a major center of speciation and endemism. Our case study demonstrates that climate is a primary determinant of phytogeographic regionalization. Although modern climate and topography are strong control parameters on the floristic composition and geographical delimitation of the Irano-Turanian region, the complex paleogeographic and paleoclimatic history of SW Asia has also influenced the Tertiary and Quaternary evolution of the Irano-Turanian flora, with additional impacts by the long-lasting historic and present land-use in this region. Many lrano-Turanian montane species are threatened by global warming, and particular conservation measures are needed to protect the Irano-Turanian flora in all sub-regions. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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Djamali M, Brewer S, Breckle S, Jackson ST. Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia. Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 2012;207(4):237-249.
Djamali, M., Brewer, S., Breckle, S., & Jackson, S. T. (2012). Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia. Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 207(4), 237-249.
Djamali, M., Brewer, S., Breckle, S., and Jackson, S. T. (2012). Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia. Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 207, 237-249.
Djamali, M., et al., 2012. Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia. Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 207(4), p 237-249.
M. Djamali, et al., “Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia”, Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, vol. 207, 2012, pp. 237-249.
Djamali, M., Brewer, S., Breckle, S., Jackson, S.T.: Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia. Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 207, 237-249 (2012).
Djamali, Morteza, Brewer, Simon, Breckle, Siegmar, and Jackson, Stephen T. “Climatic determinism in phytogeographic regionalization: A test from the Irano-Turanian region, SW and Central Asia”. Flora. Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 207.4 (2012): 237-249.
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