Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting

Gorzolka K, Lissel M, Kessler N, Loch-Ahring S, Niehaus K (2012)
Journal of Biotechnology 159(3): 177-187.

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Abstract
Samples of whole seeds, isolated endosperms including the aleurone layer and isolated embryos with attached scutellum from an industrial scale barley malting process ( variety Braemar) were analysed for their water soluble metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS). 73 known metabolites and about 350 unknown signals were detected. Principal component analysis ( PCA) showed a time dependent shift of sample profiles. Whole seeds and endosperm samples showed very similar patterns with nearly all compounds rising until the end of germination. In the embryos a maximum concentration of compounds was reached after 72-96 h of malting. Most concentrations decreased afterwards. The kilning step, namely the drying and roasting of germinated seeds, induced variable effects of increases, stability or decreases of metabolites and thereby separated kilned samples from germinated seeds in the PCA. A second barley cultivar ( Quench) underwent the same malting and analysis procedures and gave nearly identical results. Fructose, malate, myo-inositol and raffinose exhibited the potential to serve as markers for specific developmental stages of seeds in both varieties. Biological markers represent targets for industrial process control. Their potential application would meet the maltsters' demand to flatten variances in germination properties and to produce equal composed malt by directed malting management. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Gorzolka K, Lissel M, Kessler N, Loch-Ahring S, Niehaus K. Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting. Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;159(3):177-187.
Gorzolka, K., Lissel, M., Kessler, N., Loch-Ahring, S., & Niehaus, K. (2012). Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting. Journal of Biotechnology, 159(3), 177-187.
Gorzolka, K., Lissel, M., Kessler, N., Loch-Ahring, S., and Niehaus, K. (2012). Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting. Journal of Biotechnology 159, 177-187.
Gorzolka, K., et al., 2012. Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting. Journal of Biotechnology, 159(3), p 177-187.
K. Gorzolka, et al., “Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting”, Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 159, 2012, pp. 177-187.
Gorzolka, K., Lissel, M., Kessler, N., Loch-Ahring, S., Niehaus, K.: Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting. Journal of Biotechnology. 159, 177-187 (2012).
Gorzolka, Karin, Lissel, Manfred, Kessler, Nikolas, Loch-Ahring, S., and Niehaus, Karsten. “Metabolite fingerprinting of barley whole seeds, endosperms, and embryos during industrial malting”. Journal of Biotechnology 159.3 (2012): 177-187.
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