The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet

Pin PA, Zhang W, Vogt SH, Dally N, Büttner B, Schulze-Buxloh G, Jelly NS, Chia TYP, Mutasa-Göttgens ES, Dohm JC, Himmelbauer H, et al. (2012)
Current Biology 22(12): 1095-1101.

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Abstract
Life cycle adaptation to latitudinal and seasonal variation in photoperiod and temperature is a major determinant of evolutionary success in flowering plants. Whereas the life cycle of the dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by two epistatic genes, FLOWERING LOCUS C and FRIGIDA [1-3], three unrelated loci (VERNALIZATION 1-3) determine the spring and winter habits of monocotyledonous plants such as temperate cereals [4-6]. In the core eudicot species Beta vulgaris, whose lineage diverged from that leading to Arabidopsis shortly after the monocot-dicot split 140 million years ago [7, 8], the bolting locus B [9] is a master switch distinguishing annuals from biennials. Here, we isolated B and show that the pseudo-response regulator gene BOLTING TIME CONTROL 1 (BvBTC1), through regulation of the FLOWERING LOCUS T genes [10], is absolutely necessary for flowering and mediates the response to both long days and vernalization. Our results suggest that domestication of beets involved the selection of a rare partial loss-of-function BvBTC1 allele that imparts reduced sensitivity to photoperiod that is restored by vernalization, thus conferring bienniality, and illustrate how evolutionary plasticity at a key regulatory point can enable new life cycle strategies.
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Pin PA, Zhang W, Vogt SH, et al. The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet. Current Biology. 2012;22(12):1095-1101.
Pin, P. A., Zhang, W., Vogt, S. H., Dally, N., Büttner, B., Schulze-Buxloh, G., Jelly, N. S., et al. (2012). The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet. Current Biology, 22(12), 1095-1101.
Pin, P. A., Zhang, W., Vogt, S. H., Dally, N., Büttner, B., Schulze-Buxloh, G., Jelly, N. S., Chia, T. Y. P., Mutasa-Göttgens, E. S., Dohm, J. C., et al. (2012). The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet. Current Biology 22, 1095-1101.
Pin, P.A., et al., 2012. The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet. Current Biology, 22(12), p 1095-1101.
P.A. Pin, et al., “The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet”, Current Biology, vol. 22, 2012, pp. 1095-1101.
Pin, P.A., Zhang, W., Vogt, S.H., Dally, N., Büttner, B., Schulze-Buxloh, G., Jelly, N.S., Chia, T.Y.P., Mutasa-Göttgens, E.S., Dohm, J.C., Himmelbauer, H., Weisshaar, B., Kraus, J., Gielen, J.J.L., Lommel, M., Weyens, G., Wahl, B., Schechert, A., Nilsson, O., Jung, C., Kraft, T., Müller, A.E.: The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet. Current Biology. 22, 1095-1101 (2012).
Pin, Pierre A, Zhang, Wenying, Vogt, Sebastian H, Dally, Nadine, Büttner, Bianca, Schulze-Buxloh, Gretel, Jelly, Noémie S, Chia, Tansy Y P, Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie S, Dohm, Juliane C, Himmelbauer, Heinz, Weisshaar, Bernd, Kraus, Josef, Gielen, Jan J L, Lommel, Murielle, Weyens, Guy, Wahl, Bettina, Schechert, Axel, Nilsson, Ove, Jung, Christian, Kraft, Thomas, and Müller, Andreas E. “The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet”. Current Biology 22.12 (2012): 1095-1101.
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