Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

Schaal S, Dusingizemungu J-P, Jacob N, Neuner F, Elbert T (2012)
Death Studies 36(2): 97-117.

Journal Article | Published | English

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A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed a total of 400 orphaned or widowed survivors of the Rwandan genocide. The syndromes were strongly linked to each other with a high comorbidity. Principal axis factoring resulted in the emergence of 4 different factors. The symptoms of depression, along with the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of PGD, loaded on the first factor, symptoms of anxiety on the second factor, symptoms of PTSD on the third factor, and the separation distress symptoms of PGD on the fourth factor. This indicates that the concept of PGD includes symptoms that are conceptually related to depression. However, the symptom cluster of separation distress presents a grief-specific dimension that may surface unrelated to depressive symptoms.
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Schaal S, Dusingizemungu J-P, Jacob N, Neuner F, Elbert T. Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies. 2012;36(2):97-117.
Schaal, S., Dusingizemungu, J. - P., Jacob, N., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2012). Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies, 36(2), 97-117.
Schaal, S., Dusingizemungu, J. - P., Jacob, N., Neuner, F., and Elbert, T. (2012). Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies 36, 97-117.
Schaal, S., et al., 2012. Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies, 36(2), p 97-117.
S. Schaal, et al., “Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors”, Death Studies, vol. 36, 2012, pp. 97-117.
Schaal, S., Dusingizemungu, J.-P., Jacob, N., Neuner, F., Elbert, T.: Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies. 36, 97-117 (2012).
Schaal, Susanne, Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre, Jacob, Nadja, Neuner, Frank, and Elbert, Thomas. “Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors”. Death Studies 36.2 (2012): 97-117.
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2 Citations in Europe PMC

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Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.
Smid GE, Kleber RJ, de la Rie SM, Bos JB, Gersons BP, Boelen PA., Eur J Psychotraumatol 6(), 2015
PMID: 26154434
The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.
He L, Tang S, Yu W, Xu W, Xie Q, Wang J., Psychiatry Res 219(2), 2014
PMID: 24924526

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