Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations

Cordes N, Huang W-F, Strange JP, Cameron SA, Griswold TL, Lozier JD, Solter LF (2012)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 109(2): 209-216.

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Abstract
Several bumble bee (Bombus) species in North America have undergone range reductions and rapid declines in relative abundance. Pathogens have been suggested as causal factors, however, baseline data on pathogen distributions in a large number of bumble bee species have not been available to test this hypothesis. In a nationwide survey of the US, nearly 10,000 specimens of 36 bumble bee species collected at 284 sites were evaluated for the presence and prevalence of two known Bombus pathogens, the microsporidium Nosema bombi and trypanosomes in the genus Crithidia. Prevalence of Crithidia was <= 10% for all host species examined but was recorded from 21% of surveyed sites. Crithidia was isolated from 15 of the 36 Bombus species screened, and were most commonly recovered from Bombus bifarius, Bombus bimaculatus, Bombus impatiens and Bombus mixtus. Nosema bombi was isolated from 22 of the 36 US Bombus species collected. Only one species with more than 50 sampled bees, Bombus appositus, was free of the pathogen; whereas, prevalence was highest in Bombus occidentalis and Bombus pensylvanicus, two species that are reportedly undergoing population declines in North America. A variant of a tetranucleotide repeat in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the N. bombi rRNA gene, thus far not reported from European isolates, was isolated from ten US Bombus hosts, appearing in varying ratios in different host species. Given the genetic similarity of the rRNA gene of N. bombi sampled in Europe and North America to date, the presence of a unique isolate in US bumble could reveal one or more native North American strains and indicate that N. bombi is enzootic across the Holarctic Region, exhibiting some genetic isolation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Cordes N, Huang W-F, Strange JP, et al. Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 2012;109(2):209-216.
Cordes, N., Huang, W. - F., Strange, J. P., Cameron, S. A., Griswold, T. L., Lozier, J. D., & Solter, L. F. (2012). Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 109(2), 209-216.
Cordes, N., Huang, W. - F., Strange, J. P., Cameron, S. A., Griswold, T. L., Lozier, J. D., and Solter, L. F. (2012). Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 109, 209-216.
Cordes, N., et al., 2012. Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 109(2), p 209-216.
N. Cordes, et al., “Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations”, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 109, 2012, pp. 209-216.
Cordes, N., Huang, W.-F., Strange, J.P., Cameron, S.A., Griswold, T.L., Lozier, J.D., Solter, L.F.: Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 109, 209-216 (2012).
Cordes, Nils, Huang, Wei-Fone, Strange, James P., Cameron, Sydney A., Griswold, Terry L., Lozier, Jeffrey D., and Solter, Leellen F. “Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations”. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 109.2 (2012): 209-216.
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13 Citations in Europe PMC

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States.
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Biller OM, Adler LS, Irwin RE, McAllister C, Palmer-Young EC., PLoS ONE 10(12), 2015
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Anthony WE, Palmer-Young EC, Leonard AS, Irwin RE, Adler LS., PLoS ONE 10(11), 2015
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Arbulo N, Antunez K, Salvarrey S, Santos E, Branchiccela B, Martin-Hernandez R, Higes M, Invernizzi C., J. Invertebr. Pathol. 130(), 2015
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Distribution and diversity of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in the natural populations of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) from West Siberia.
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PMID: 26063531
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PCR reveals high prevalence of non/low sporulating Nosema bombi (microsporidia) infections in bumble bees (Bombus) in Northern Arizona.
Blaker EA, Strange JP, James RR, Monroy FP, Cobb NS., J. Invertebr. Pathol. 123(), 2014
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Cariveau DP, Elijah Powell J, Koch H, Winfree R, Moran NA., ISME J 8(12), 2014
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Huang WF, Solter LF, Yau PM, Imai BS., PLoS Pathog. 9(3), 2013
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Huang WF, Solter LF., J. Invertebr. Pathol. 113(1), 2013
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