Deduction without awareness

Reverberi C, Pischedda D, Burigo M, Cherubini P (2011)
Acta Psychologica 139(1): 244-253.

Journal Article | Published | English

No fulltext has been uploaded

Author
; ; ;
Abstract
We investigated whether two basic forms of deductive inference, Modus Ponens and Disjunctive Syllogism, occur automatically and without awareness. In Experiment 1, we used a priming paradigm with a set of conditional and disjunctive problems. For each trial, two premises were shown. The second premise was presented at a rate designed to be undetectable. After each problem, participants had to evaluate whether a newly-presented target number was odd or even. The target number matched or did not match a conclu- sion endorsed by the two previous premises. We found that when the target matched the conclusion of a Modus Ponens inference, the evaluation of the target number was reliably faster than baseline even when participants reported that they were not aware of the second premise. This priming effect did not occur for any other valid or invalid inference that we tested, including the Disjunctive Syllogism. In Experiment 2, we used a forced-choice paradigm in which we found that some participants were able to access some in- formation on the second premise when their attention was explicitly directed to it. In Experiment 3, we showed that the priming effect for Modus Ponens was present also in subjects who could not access any information about P2. In Experiment 4 we explored whether spatial relations (e.g., “a before b”) or sen- tences with quantifiers (e.g., “all a with b”) could generate a priming effect similar to the one observed for Modus Ponens. A priming effect could be found for Modus Ponens only, but not for the other relations tested. These findings show that the Modus Ponens inference, in contrast to other deductive inferences, can be carried out automatically and unconsciously. Furthermore, our findings suggest that critical deduc- tive inference schemata can be included in the range of high-level cognitive activities that are carried out unconsciously.
Publishing Year
ISSN
PUB-ID

Cite this

Reverberi C, Pischedda D, Burigo M, Cherubini P. Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica. 2011;139(1):244-253.
Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., & Cherubini, P. (2011). Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica, 139(1), 244-253.
Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., and Cherubini, P. (2011). Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica 139, 244-253.
Reverberi, C., et al., 2011. Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica, 139(1), p 244-253.
C. Reverberi, et al., “Deduction without awareness”, Acta Psychologica, vol. 139, 2011, pp. 244-253.
Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., Cherubini, P.: Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica. 139, 244-253 (2011).
Reverberi, Carlo, Pischedda, Doris, Burigo, Michele, and Cherubini, Paolo. “Deduction without awareness”. Acta Psychologica 139.1 (2011): 244-253.
This data publication is cited in the following publications:
This publication cites the following data publications:

3 Citations in Europe PMC

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

Nothing new under the sun, or the moon, or both.
Bonatti LL, Cherubini P, Reverberi C., Front Hum Neurosci 9(), 2015
PMID: 26578932

Export

0 Marked Publications

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

View record in Web of Science®

Sources

PMID: 22019058
PubMed | Europe PMC

Search this title in

Google Scholar