Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing

Meilinger SK, Koop T, Luo BP, Huthwelker T, Carslaw KS, Krieger U, Crutzen PJ, Peter T (1995)
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 22(22): 3031-3034.

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Abstract
Rapid temperature fluctuations are shown to cause liquid H2SO4/HNO3/H2O stratospheric aerosols to depart considerably from thermodynamic equilibrium. While HNO3 uptake by larger droplets is diffusively hindered, small droplets can approach the composition of a pure binary HNO3/H2O solution with up to 52 wt% HNO3, 48 wt% H2O and very small amounts of H2SO4. The stoichiometry of these droplets is close to that of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and freezing experiments suggest that this could be a suitable pathway for the formation of frozen polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of type-Ia.
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Meilinger SK, Koop T, Luo BP, et al. Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 1995;22(22):3031-3034.
Meilinger, S. K., Koop, T., Luo, B. P., Huthwelker, T., Carslaw, K. S., Krieger, U., Crutzen, P. J., et al. (1995). Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 22(22), 3031-3034.
Meilinger, S. K., Koop, T., Luo, B. P., Huthwelker, T., Carslaw, K. S., Krieger, U., Crutzen, P. J., and Peter, T. (1995). Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 22, 3031-3034.
Meilinger, S.K., et al., 1995. Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 22(22), p 3031-3034.
S.K. Meilinger, et al., “Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing”, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, vol. 22, 1995, pp. 3031-3034.
Meilinger, S.K., Koop, T., Luo, B.P., Huthwelker, T., Carslaw, K.S., Krieger, U., Crutzen, P.J., Peter, T.: Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 22, 3031-3034 (1995).
Meilinger, S. K., Koop, Thomas, Luo, B. P., Huthwelker, T., Carslaw, K. S., Krieger, U., Crutzen, P. J., and Peter, T. “Size-dependent stratospheric droplet composition in lee wave temperature-fluctuations and the potential role in PSC freezing”. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 22.22 (1995): 3031-3034.
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