Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

Koop T, Carslaw KS (1996)
SCIENCE 272(5268): 1638-1641.

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Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for the chemical activation of chlorine compounds and subsequent ozone depletion. Solid PSCs can form on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) (H2SO4 . 4H(2)O) nuclei, but recent laboratory experiments have shown that PSC nucleation on SAT is strongly hindered. A PSC formation mechanism is proposed in which SAT particles melt upon cooling in the presence of HNO3 to form liquid HNO3-H2SO4-H2O droplets 2 to 3 kelvin above the ice frost point. This mechanism offers a PSC formation temperature that is defined by the ambient conditions and sets a temperature limit below which PSCs should form.
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Koop T, Carslaw KS. Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. SCIENCE. 1996;272(5268):1638-1641.
Koop, T., & Carslaw, K. S. (1996). Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. SCIENCE, 272(5268), 1638-1641.
Koop, T., and Carslaw, K. S. (1996). Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. SCIENCE 272, 1638-1641.
Koop, T., & Carslaw, K.S., 1996. Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. SCIENCE, 272(5268), p 1638-1641.
T. Koop and K.S. Carslaw, “Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds”, SCIENCE, vol. 272, 1996, pp. 1638-1641.
Koop, T., Carslaw, K.S.: Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. SCIENCE. 272, 1638-1641 (1996).
Koop, Thomas, and Carslaw, K. S. “Melting of H2SO4x4H2O particles upon cooling: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds”. SCIENCE 272.5268 (1996): 1638-1641.
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The reaction rate constant of chlorine nitrate hydrolysis.
Loerting T, Liedl KR., Chemistry 7(8), 2001
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