The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing

Biermann UM, Presper T, Koop T, Mössinger J, Crutzen PJ, Peter T (1996)
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 23(13): 1693-1696.

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Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Bulk freezing experiments have been performed with binary and ternary HNO3/H2SO4/H2O solutions containing original micrometeorites, ground samples of representative larger meteorites and other freezing nuclei of potential stratospheric importance. The experiments enable us to determine upper bounds for the heterogeneous freezing rates of sulfuric and nitric acid hydrates. Based on an analysis, of the meteoritic mass flux from space and of the modifications meteorites undergo when entering the atmosphere, the resulting morphology and surface area of extraterrestrial material in the stratosphere are estimated. From this micrometeorites gained from Antarctica are shown to be a good proxy for meteoritic surfaces in the stratosphere. In combination with this analysis the freezing experiments suggest that heterogeneous nucleation rates on micrometeorites ale too low to enhance freezing of polar stratospheric clouds above the frost point.
Erscheinungsjahr
Zeitschriftentitel
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS
Band
23
Zeitschriftennummer
13
Seite
1693-1696
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Biermann UM, Presper T, Koop T, Mössinger J, Crutzen PJ, Peter T. The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 1996;23(13):1693-1696.
Biermann, U. M., Presper, T., Koop, T., Mössinger, J., Crutzen, P. J., & Peter, T. (1996). The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 23(13), 1693-1696. doi:10.1029/96gl01577
Biermann, U. M., Presper, T., Koop, T., Mössinger, J., Crutzen, P. J., and Peter, T. (1996). The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 23, 1693-1696.
Biermann, U.M., et al., 1996. The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 23(13), p 1693-1696.
U.M. Biermann, et al., “The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing”, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, vol. 23, 1996, pp. 1693-1696.
Biermann, U.M., Presper, T., Koop, T., Mössinger, J., Crutzen, P.J., Peter, T.: The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. 23, 1693-1696 (1996).
Biermann, U. M., Presper, T., Koop, Thomas, Mössinger, J., Crutzen, P. J., and Peter, T. “The unsuitability of meteoritic and other nuclei for polar stratospheric cloud freezing”. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 23.13 (1996): 1693-1696.