PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

LÜTHI R, MEYER E, HOWALD L, HAEFKE H, Anselmetti D, DREIER M, RUETSCHE M, BONNER T, OVERNEY RM, FROMMER J, GÜNTHERODT HJ (1994)
JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B 12(3): 1673-1676.

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Abstract
The technique of operating the scanning force microscope in the dynamic noncontact mode (dynamic force microscopy) has been improved. Home-built instruments based on an optical beam deflection scheme in two different environments were used. The two force microscopes were operated in ambient air and in ultrahigh vacuum, respectively. In order to control the oscillating cantilever different methods were applied: slope-detection (lock-in amplifier, RMS-to-DC converter) and frequency modulation (FM) technique as well. The advantages of this nondestructive technique are demonstrated on different samples, such as soft organic matter (hexagonally packed intermediate layer, Langmuir-Blodgett film), layer-structured compounds (CdI2), n-doped Si(111), and ferroelectric crystals [triglycine sulfate (TGS), guanidinium aluminum sulfate hexahydrate (GASH)]. On TGS and GASH cleavage faces, the ferroelectric domains and domain walls could be imaged. From experimental data a spatial resolution of about 1-2 nm in lateral and <0.1 nm in vertical directions could be determined.
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LÜTHI R, MEYER E, HOWALD L, et al. PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B. 1994;12(3):1673-1676.
LÜTHI, R., MEYER, E., HOWALD, L., HAEFKE, H., Anselmetti, D., DREIER, M., RUETSCHE, M., et al. (1994). PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, 12(3), 1673-1676.
LÜTHI, R., MEYER, E., HOWALD, L., HAEFKE, H., Anselmetti, D., DREIER, M., RUETSCHE, M., BONNER, T., OVERNEY, R. M., FROMMER, J., et al. (1994). PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B 12, 1673-1676.
LÜTHI, R., et al., 1994. PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, 12(3), p 1673-1676.
R. LÜTHI, et al., “PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY”, JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, vol. 12, 1994, pp. 1673-1676.
LÜTHI, R., MEYER, E., HOWALD, L., HAEFKE, H., Anselmetti, D., DREIER, M., RUETSCHE, M., BONNER, T., OVERNEY, R.M., FROMMER, J., GÜNTHERODT, H.J.: PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B. 12, 1673-1676 (1994).
LÜTHI, R, MEYER, E, HOWALD, L, HAEFKE, H, Anselmetti, Dario, DREIER, M, RUETSCHE, M, BONNER, T, OVERNEY, RM, FROMMER, J, and GÜNTHERODT, HJ. “PROGRESS IN NONCONTRACT DYNAMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY”. JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B 12.3 (1994): 1673-1676.
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