Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell

Hossenfelder S, Schwarz D, Greiner W (2003)
Classical and Quantum Gravity 20(11): 2337-2353.

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We compute the production of particles from the gravitational field of an expanding mass shell. Contrary to the situation of Hawking radiation and the production of cosmological perturbations during cosmological inflation, the example of an expanding mass shell has no horizon and no singularity. We apply the method of 'ray-tracing', first introduced by Hawking, and calculate the energy spectrum of the produced particles. The result depends on three parameters: the expansion velocity of the mass shell, its radius and its mass. Contrary to the situation of a collapsing mass shell, the energy spectrum is non-thermal. Invoking time reversal we reproduce Hawking's thermal spectrum in a certain limit.
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Hossenfelder S, Schwarz D, Greiner W. Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell. Classical and Quantum Gravity. 2003;20(11):2337-2353.
Hossenfelder, S., Schwarz, D., & Greiner, W. (2003). Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 20(11), 2337-2353.
Hossenfelder, S., Schwarz, D., and Greiner, W. (2003). Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell. Classical and Quantum Gravity 20, 2337-2353.
Hossenfelder, S., Schwarz, D., & Greiner, W., 2003. Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 20(11), p 2337-2353.
S. Hossenfelder, D. Schwarz, and W. Greiner, “Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell”, Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 20, 2003, pp. 2337-2353.
Hossenfelder, S., Schwarz, D., Greiner, W.: Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell. Classical and Quantum Gravity. 20, 2337-2353 (2003).
Hossenfelder, S, Schwarz, Dominik, and Greiner, W. “Particle production in time-dependent gravitational fields: the expanding mass shell”. Classical and Quantum Gravity 20.11 (2003): 2337-2353.
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