# Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions

Kajantie K, Karjalainen M, Laine M, Peisa J (1998) *Nuclear Physics B* 520(1-2): 345-381.

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We study the three-dimensional U(1) + Higgs theory (Ginzburg-Landau model) as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions from the 1 K scale of superconductivity to the relativistic scales of scalar electrodynamics. The relations between the parameters of the physical theory and the parameters of the 3d effective theory are given. The 3d theory as such is studied with lattice Monte Carlo techniques. The phase diagram, the characteristics of the transition in the first-order regime, and scalar and vector correlation lengths are determined. We find that even rather deep in the first-order regime, the transition is weaker than indicated by 2-loop perturbation theory. Topological effects caused by the compact formulation are studied, and it is demonstrated that they vanish in the continuum limit. In particular, the photon mass (inverse correlation length) is observed to be zero within statistical errors in the symmetric phase, thus constituting an effective order parameter. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

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Kajantie K, Karjalainen M, Laine M, Peisa J. Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions.

*Nuclear Physics B*. 1998;520(1-2):345-381.Kajantie, K., Karjalainen, M., Laine, M., & Peisa, J. (1998). Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions.

*Nuclear Physics B*,*520*(1-2), 345-381. doi:10.1016/S0550-3213(98)00064-9Kajantie, K., Karjalainen, M., Laine, M., and Peisa, J. (1998). Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions.

*Nuclear Physics B*520, 345-381.Kajantie, K., et al., 1998. Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions.

*Nuclear Physics B*, 520(1-2), p 345-381. K. Kajantie, et al., “Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions”,

*Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 520, 1998, pp. 345-381. Kajantie, K., Karjalainen, M., Laine, M., Peisa, J.: Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions. Nuclear Physics B. 520, 345-381 (1998).

Kajantie, K, Karjalainen, M, Laine, Mikko, and Peisa, J. “Three-dimensional U(1) gauge plus Higgs-theory as an effective theory for finite-temperature phase transitions”.

*Nuclear Physics B*520.1-2 (1998): 345-381.
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