Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations

Kajantie K, Karjalainen M, Laine M, Peisa J, Rajantie A (1998)
Physics Letters B 428(3-4): 334-341.

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We study non-perturbatively and from first principles the thermodynamics of vortices in 3d U(1) gauge + Higgs theory, or the Ginzburg-Landau model, which has frequently been used as a model for cosmological topological defect formation. We discretize the system and introduce a gauge-invariant definition of a vortex passing through a loop on the lattice. We then study with Monte Carlo simulations the total vortex density, extract the physically meaningful part thereof, and demonstrate that it has a well-defined continuum limit. The total vortex density behaves as a pseudo order parameter, having a discontinuity in the regime of first order transitions and behaving continuously in the regime of second order transitions. Finally, we discuss further gauge-invariant observables to be measured. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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Kajantie K, Karjalainen M, Laine M, Peisa J, Rajantie A. Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Physics Letters B. 1998;428(3-4):334-341.
Kajantie, K., Karjalainen, M., Laine, M., Peisa, J., & Rajantie, A. (1998). Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Physics Letters B, 428(3-4), 334-341.
Kajantie, K., Karjalainen, M., Laine, M., Peisa, J., and Rajantie, A. (1998). Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Physics Letters B 428, 334-341.
Kajantie, K., et al., 1998. Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Physics Letters B, 428(3-4), p 334-341.
K. Kajantie, et al., “Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations”, Physics Letters B, vol. 428, 1998, pp. 334-341.
Kajantie, K., Karjalainen, M., Laine, M., Peisa, J., Rajantie, A.: Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Physics Letters B. 428, 334-341 (1998).
Kajantie, K, Karjalainen, M, Laine, Mikko, Peisa, J, and Rajantie, A. “Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations”. Physics Letters B 428.3-4 (1998): 334-341.
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