Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields

Farakos K, de Forcrand P, Altes CPK, Laine M, Vettorazzo M (2003)
Nuclear Physics B 655(1-2): 170-184.

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If SU(N) gauge fields live in a world with a circular extra dimension, coupling there only to adjointly charged matter, the system possesses a global Z(N) symmetry. If the radius is small enough such that dimensional reduction takes place, this symmetry is spontaneously broken. It turns out that its fate at high temperatures is not easily decided with straightforward perturbation theory. Utilising non-perturbative lattice simulations, we demonstrate here that the symmetry does get restored at a certain temperature T-C, both for a (3 + 1)- and a (4 + 1)-dimensional world (the latter with a finite cutoff). To avoid a cosmological domain wall problem, such models would thus be allowed only if the reheating temperature after inflation is below T-C. We also comment on the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to small modifications of the model. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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Farakos K, de Forcrand P, Altes CPK, Laine M, Vettorazzo M. Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields. Nuclear Physics B. 2003;655(1-2):170-184.
Farakos, K., de Forcrand, P., Altes, C. P. K., Laine, M., & Vettorazzo, M. (2003). Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields. Nuclear Physics B, 655(1-2), 170-184.
Farakos, K., de Forcrand, P., Altes, C. P. K., Laine, M., and Vettorazzo, M. (2003). Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields. Nuclear Physics B 655, 170-184.
Farakos, K., et al., 2003. Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields. Nuclear Physics B, 655(1-2), p 170-184.
K. Farakos, et al., “Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields”, Nuclear Physics B, vol. 655, 2003, pp. 170-184.
Farakos, K., de Forcrand, P., Altes, C.P.K., Laine, M., Vettorazzo, M.: Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields. Nuclear Physics B. 655, 170-184 (2003).
Farakos, K, de Forcrand, P, Altes, CPK, Laine, Mikko, and Vettorazzo, M. “Finite temperature Z(N) phase transition with Kaluza-Klein gauge fields”. Nuclear Physics B 655.1-2 (2003): 170-184.
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