Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC

Friman B, Karsch F, Redlich K, Skokov V (2011)
European Physical Journal C 71(7).

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We discuss the relevance of higher order cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations for the analysis of freeze-out and critical conditions in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. Using properties of O(4) scaling functions, we discuss the generic structure of these higher cumulants at vanishing baryon chemical potential and apply chiral model calculations to explore their properties at non-zero baryon chemical potential. We show that the ratios of the sixth to second and eighth to second order cumulants of the net baryon number fluctuations change rapidly in the transition region of the QCD phase diagram. Already at vanishing baryon chemical potential they deviate considerably from the predictions of the hadron resonance gas model which reproduce the second and fourth order cumulants of the net proton number fluctuations at RHIC. We point out that the sixth order cumulants of baryon number and electric charge fluctuations remain negative at the chiral transition temperature. Thus, they offer the possibility to probe the proximity of the chemical freeze-out to the crossover line.
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Friman B, Karsch F, Redlich K, Skokov V. Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. European Physical Journal C. 2011;71(7).
Friman, B., Karsch, F., Redlich, K., & Skokov, V. (2011). Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. European Physical Journal C, 71(7). doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-011-1694-2
Friman, B., Karsch, F., Redlich, K., and Skokov, V. (2011). Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. European Physical Journal C 71.
Friman, B., et al., 2011. Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. European Physical Journal C, 71(7).
B. Friman, et al., “Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC”, European Physical Journal C, vol. 71, 2011.
Friman, B., Karsch, F., Redlich, K., Skokov, V.: Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC. European Physical Journal C. 71, (2011).
Friman, B., Karsch, Frithjof, Redlich, K., and Skokov, V. “Fluctuations as probe of the QCD phase transition and freeze-out in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC”. European Physical Journal C 71.7 (2011).
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