Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands

Bilecen B (2009) COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62.
Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development.

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Due to its challenging nature of traditional perspectives, human smuggling is always on the agenda of decision makers, politicians, media and academia. This article focuses on human smuggling between Middle East into the European Union, especially the Netherlands. Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan are the chosen countries from the region since there are increasing numbers of asylum seekers in Europe. The article briefly looks at different perspectives in the literature and then concentrates on the involvement of transnational organized crime in the process of human smuggling. Then it will try to analyze organized crime perspective by network analysis.
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Bilecen B. Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands. COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62. Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development; 2009.
Bilecen, B. (2009). Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands (COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62). Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development.
Bilecen, B. (2009). Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands. COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62, Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development.
Bilecen, B., 2009. Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands, COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62, Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development.
B. Bilecen, Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands, COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62, Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development, 2009.
Bilecen, B.: Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands. COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62. COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development, Bielefeld (2009).
Bilecen, Basak. Human smuggling networks operating between Middle East and the European Union. Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani migrants in the Netherlands. Bielefeld: COMCAD - Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development, 2009. COMCAD Arbeitspapiere - working papers, 62.
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