Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences

Grützmacher N, Panzer S, Blandin Y, Shea CH (2011)
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 64(6): 1111-1123.

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Abstract
An experiment was conducted to determine the coordinate system used in the development of movement codes during observation and utilized on later physical practice performance of a simple spatial-temporal movement sequence. The task was to reproduce a 1.3-s spatial-temporal pattern of elbow flexions and extensions. An intermanual transfer paradigm with a retention test and two transfer tests was used: a mirror transfer test where the same pattern of muscle activation and limb joint angles was required and a nonmirror transfer test where the visual-spatial pattern of the sequence was reinstated on the transfer test. The results indicated a strong advantage for participants in the physical practice condition when transferred to the mirror condition in which the motor coordinates (e.g., pattern of muscle activation and joint angles) were reinstated relative to transfer performance when the visual-spatial coordinates were reinstated (visual and spatial location of the target waveform). The observation group, however, demonstrated an advantage when the visual-spatial coordinates were reinstated. These results demonstrate that codes based in motor coordinates can be developed relatively quickly for simple rapid movement sequences when participants are provided physical practice, but observational practice limits the system to the development of codes based in visual-spatial coordinates. Performances of control participants, who were not permitted to practise or observe the task, were quite poor on all tests.
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Grützmacher N, Panzer S, Blandin Y, Shea CH. Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2011;64(6):1111-1123.
Grützmacher, N., Panzer, S., Blandin, Y., & Shea, C. H. (2011). Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(6), 1111-1123.
Grützmacher, N., Panzer, S., Blandin, Y., and Shea, C. H. (2011). Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 64, 1111-1123.
Grützmacher, N., et al., 2011. Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(6), p 1111-1123.
N. Grützmacher, et al., “Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences”, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 64, 2011, pp. 1111-1123.
Grützmacher, N., Panzer, S., Blandin, Y., Shea, C.H.: Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 64, 1111-1123 (2011).
Grützmacher, Nicole, Panzer, Stefan, Blandin, Yannick, and Shea, Charles H. “Observation and physical practice: Coding of simple movement sequences”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 64.6 (2011): 1111-1123.
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9 Citations in Europe PMC

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