Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing

Tatone C, Heizenrieder T, Di Emidio G, Treffon P, Amicarelli F, Seidel T, Eichenlaub-Ritter U (2011)
Human Reproduction 26(7): 1843-1859.

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BACKGROUND: Highly reactive carbonyl compounds formed during glycolysis, such as methylglyoxal (MG), can lead to the formation of 'advanced glycation end products' (AGE) and carbonyl stress. Toxic AGEs are suspected to accumulate and play a role in reducing quality and developmental potential of mammalian oocytes of aged females and in PCOS and diabetic patients. Whether and how MG and AGE affect young and aged oocytes at the cellular level is unknown. METHODS: The study consists of three parts. In Part A expression of MG-detoxifying enzymes glyoxalases 1 and 2 was analysed by RT-PCR at different stages of maturation in denuded oocytes (DO), cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) and metaphase (M)II oocytes of the CD-1 mouse to obtain information on stage-specific susceptibility to carbonyl stress. DO and CEO from young and aged females and from stimulated cycles were exposed to MG during maturation in vitro to assess also age-related changes in sensitivity to carbonyl stress induced by MG. Induction of apoptosis by MG on in vitro maturing DO was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling test. In Part B of the study, DO from large antral follicles of ovaries of adult, young MF-1 mice in late diestrous were exposed to MG to assess direct influences of MG and AGEs formed during continuous exposure to MG on rate and kinetics of maturation to MII, on DNA integrity (by gamma-H2AX staining) in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, and on spindle formation and chromosome alignment (by tubulin and pericentrin immunofluorescence and polarization microscopy), and chromosome segregation (by C-banding) during in vitro maturation. Since MG and AGEs can affect functionality of mitochondria in Part C, mitochondrial distribution and membrane potential was studied using JC-1 probe. Expression of a redox-sensitive mito-Grx1-roGFP2 protein in mitochondria of maturing oocytes by confocal laser scanning microscopy was employed to determine the inner mitochondrial glutathion (GSH)/glutathion disulfide (GSSG)-dependent redox potential. RESULTS: Part A revealed that mRNA for glyoxalases decreases during meiotic maturation. Importantly, cumulus from aged mice in CEO obtained from stimulated cycles does not protect oocytes efficiently from MG-induced meiotic arrest during in vitro maturation. Part B showed that the MG-induced meiotic delay or arrest is associated with significant rises in spindle aberrations, chromosome congression failure and aberrant telophase I in oocytes. MG exposure of meiotically arrested GV-stage oocytes significantly increases the numbers of gamma-H2AX spots in the nucleus suggesting increased DNA damage, while MG exposure during maturation affects chromatin condensation and induces chromosome lagging at anaphase I. Moreover, Part C revealed that carbonyl stress by chronic exposure to MG is associated with delays in changes in mitochondrial distribution and altered inner-mitochondrial GSH/GSSG redox potential, which might be particularly relevant for cytoskeletal dynamics as well as processes after fertilization. Sensitivity to a meiotic block by MG appears dependent on the genetic background. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity to carbonyl stress by MG appears to increase with maternal age. Since MG-exposure induces DNA damage, meiotic delay, spindle aberrations, anaphase I lagging and epimutation, aged oocytes are particularly at risk for such disturbances in the absence of efficient protection by cumulus. Furthermore, disturbances in mitochondrial distribution and redox regulation may be especially critical for fertilization and developmental competence of oocytes exposed to MG and carbonyl stress before or during maturation, for instance, in aged females, or in PCOS or diabetic patients, in agreement with recent suggestions of correlations between poor follicular and embryonic development, lower pregnancy rate and presence of toxic AGEs in serum, irrespective of age.
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Tatone C, Heizenrieder T, Di Emidio G, et al. Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing. Human Reproduction. 2011;26(7):1843-1859.
Tatone, C., Heizenrieder, T., Di Emidio, G., Treffon, P., Amicarelli, F., Seidel, T., & Eichenlaub-Ritter, U. (2011). Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing. Human Reproduction, 26(7), 1843-1859.
Tatone, C., Heizenrieder, T., Di Emidio, G., Treffon, P., Amicarelli, F., Seidel, T., and Eichenlaub-Ritter, U. (2011). Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing. Human Reproduction 26, 1843-1859.
Tatone, C., et al., 2011. Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing. Human Reproduction, 26(7), p 1843-1859.
C. Tatone, et al., “Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing”, Human Reproduction, vol. 26, 2011, pp. 1843-1859.
Tatone, C., Heizenrieder, T., Di Emidio, G., Treffon, P., Amicarelli, F., Seidel, T., Eichenlaub-Ritter, U.: Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing. Human Reproduction. 26, 1843-1859 (2011).
Tatone, Carla, Heizenrieder, Tanja, Di Emidio, Giovanna, Treffon, Patrick, Amicarelli, Fernanda, Seidel, Thorsten, and Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula. “Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing”. Human Reproduction 26.7 (2011): 1843-1859.
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