Focus cues affect perceived depth

Watt SJ, Akeley K, Ernst MO, Banks MS (2005)
Journal of Vision 5(10): 7.

No fulltext has been uploaded. References only!
Journal Article | Review | Published | English

No fulltext has been uploaded

; ; ;
Depth information from focus cues-accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur-is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity ( binocular viewing) or perspective/ texture ( monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defoned 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy ( with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space.
Publishing Year

Cite this

Watt SJ, Akeley K, Ernst MO, Banks MS. Focus cues affect perceived depth. Journal of Vision. 2005;5(10):7.
Watt, S. J., Akeley, K., Ernst, M. O., & Banks, M. S. (2005). Focus cues affect perceived depth. Journal of Vision, 5(10), 7. doi:10.1167/5.10.7
Watt, S. J., Akeley, K., Ernst, M. O., and Banks, M. S. (2005). Focus cues affect perceived depth. Journal of Vision 5, 7.
Watt, S.J., et al., 2005. Focus cues affect perceived depth. Journal of Vision, 5(10), p 7.
S.J. Watt, et al., “Focus cues affect perceived depth”, Journal of Vision, vol. 5, 2005, pp. 7.
Watt, S.J., Akeley, K., Ernst, M.O., Banks, M.S.: Focus cues affect perceived depth. Journal of Vision. 5, 7 (2005).
Watt, SJ, Akeley, K, Ernst, Marc O., and Banks, MS. “Focus cues affect perceived depth”. Journal of Vision 5.10 (2005): 7.
This data publication is cited in the following publications:
This publication cites the following data publications:

40 Citations in Europe PMC

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

Stereoscopic depth constancy.
Guan P, Banks MS., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 371(1697), 2016
PMID: 27269596
Pinhole Viewing Strengthens the Hollow-Face Illusion.
Koessler T, Hill H., Iperception 6(4), 2015
PMID: 27433315
Are blur and disparity complementary cues to depth?
Langer MS, Siciliano RA., Vision Res. 107(), 2015
PMID: 25482222
A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.
Hua H, Javidi B., Opt Express 22(11), 2014
PMID: 24921542
Shape constancy measured by a canonical-shape method.
Howard IP, Fujii Y, Allison RS, Kirollos R., Vision Res. 94(), 2014
PMID: 24219918
Visual discomfort and depth-of-field.
O'Hare L, Zhang T, Nefs HT, Hibbard PB., Iperception 4(3), 2013
PMID: 23799193
Panoramic stereo photography based on single-lens with a double-symmetric prism.
Chen CY, Deng QL, Sun WS, Cheng QY, Lin BS, Su CL., Opt Express 21(7), 2013
PMID: 23571937
Visual perception: understanding visual cues to depth.
Read JC., Curr. Biol. 22(5), 2012
PMID: 22401898
Estimating distance during self-motion: a role for visual-vestibular interactions.
Dokka K, MacNeilage PR, DeAngelis GC, Angelaki DE., J Vis 11(13), 2011
PMID: 22045777
Contextual effects on perceived three-dimensional shape.
O'Kane LM, Hibbard PB., Vision Res. 50(11), 2010
PMID: 20363240
The accuracy of metric judgements: perception of surface normal.
Porrill J, Duke PA, Taroyan NA, Frisby JP, Buckley D., Vision Res. 50(12), 2010
PMID: 20298712
Cue combination for 3D location judgements.
Svarverud E, Gilson SJ, Glennerster A., J Vis 10(1), 2010
PMID: 20143898
Stereo display with time-multiplexed focal adjustment.
Hoffman DM, Hands PJ, Kirby AK, Love GD, Banks MS., Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 7237(), 2009
PMID: 21479104
Consequences of Incorrect Focus Cues in Stereo Displays.
Banks MS, Akeley K, Hoffman DM, Girshick AR., J Soc Inf Disp 24(7), 2008
PMID: 20523910

124 References

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens
Suyama S, Date M, Takada H., 2000
A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths
Suyama S, Takada H, Uehira K, Sakai S., 2000
A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (Depth-Fused 3-D) display
Suyama S, Takada H, Uehira K, Sakai S., 2001
The relative influence of accommodation and convergence in the judgment of distance
Swenson HA., 1932
Does the quality of the computer graphics matter when judging distances in visually immersive environments
Thompson WB, Willemsen P, Gooch AA, Creem-Regehr SH, Loomis JM, Beall AC., 2004
The precision of proprioceptive position sense
van RJ, Sittig AC, Denier JJ., 1998
When feeling is more important than seeing in sensorimotor adaptation.
van Beers RJ, Wolpert DM, Haggard P., Curr. Biol. 12(10), 2002
PMID: 12015120
Perceived visual direction near an occluder.
van Ee R, Banks MS, Backus BT., Vision Res. 39(24), 1999
PMID: 10748941
Stability of binocular depth perception with moving head and eyes.
van Ee R, Erkelens CJ., Vision Res. 36(23), 1996
PMID: 8994584
The participation of convergence and accommodation in perceived size constancy
von E., 1973
WALLACH H, NORRIS CM., Am J Psychol 76(), 1963
PMID: 14082663
The constancy of stereoscopic depth.
WALLACH H, ZUCKERMAN C., Am J Psychol 76(), 1963
PMID: 13998575
Health issues with virtual reality displays: What we know and what we don’t
Wann JP, Mon-Williams M., 1997
Natural problems for stereoscopic depth perception in virtual environments.
Wann JP, Rushton S, Mon-Williams M., Vision Res. 35(19), 1995
PMID: 7483313
The HiBall tracker: High-performance wide-area tracking for virtual and augmented environments
Welch G, Bishop G, Vicci L, Brumback S, Keller K, Colucci D., 1999
Dynamics in binocular depth perception
Werner H., 1937
The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit.
Wichmann FA, Hill NJ., Percept Psychophys 63(8), 2001
PMID: 11800458
Viewing comfort with stereoscopic pictures: An experimental study on the subjective effects of disparity magnitude and depth of focus
Wöpking M., 1995

Wundt W., 1862

Wyszecki G, Stiles WS., 1982


0 Marked Publications

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

View record in Web of Science®


PMID: 16441189
PubMed | Europe PMC

Search this title in

Google Scholar