Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German

Vorwerg C, Tenbrink T (2007)
In: Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction. Barkowsky T, Knauff M, Ligozat G, Montello D (Eds); Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387, . Berlin: Springer: 470-488.

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Barkowsky, T. ; Knauff, M. ; Ligozat, G. ; Montello, D.
Abstract
The ways in which objects are referred to by using spatial language depend on many factors, including the spatial configuration and the discourse context. We present the results of a web experiment in which speakers were asked to either describe where a specified item was located in a picture containing several items, or which item was specified. Furthermore, conditions differed as to whether the first six configurations were specifically simple or specifically complex. Results show that speakers’ spatial descriptions are more detailed if the question is where rather than which, mirroring the fact that contrasting the target item from the others in which tasks may not always require an equally detailed spatial description as in where tasks. Furthermore, speakers are influenced by the complexity of initial configurations in intricate ways: on the one hand, individual speakers tend to self-align with respect to their earlier linguistic strategies; however, also a contrast effect could be identified with respect to the usage of combined projective terms.
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Vorwerg C, Tenbrink T. Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German. In: Barkowsky T, Knauff M, Ligozat G, Montello D, eds. Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387. Berlin: Springer; 2007: 470-488.
Vorwerg, C., & Tenbrink, T. (2007). Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German. In T. Barkowsky, M. Knauff, G. Ligozat, & D. Montello (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387. Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction (pp. 470-488). Berlin: Springer.
Vorwerg, C., and Tenbrink, T. (2007). “Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German” in Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction, ed. T. Barkowsky, M. Knauff, G. Ligozat, and D. Montello Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387 (Berlin: Springer), 470-488.
Vorwerg, C., & Tenbrink, T., 2007. Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German. In T. Barkowsky, et al., eds. Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387. Berlin: Springer, pp. 470-488.
C. Vorwerg and T. Tenbrink, “Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German”, Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction, T. Barkowsky, et al., eds., Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387, Berlin: Springer, 2007, pp.470-488.
Vorwerg, C., Tenbrink, T.: Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German. In: Barkowsky, T., Knauff, M., Ligozat, G., and Montello, D. (eds.) Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387. p. 470-488. Springer, Berlin (2007).
Vorwerg, Constanze, and Tenbrink, T. “Discourse factors influencing spatial descriptions in English and German”. Spatial cognition V: Reasoning, action, interaction. Ed. T. Barkowsky, M. Knauff, G. Ligozat, and D. Montello. Berlin: Springer, 2007. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4387. 470-488.
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