Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts

Berthold K, Nuckles M, Renkl A (2007)
Learning and Instruction 17(5): 564-577.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Abstract
Although writing learning protocols is an effective follow-up course work activity, many learners tend to do it in a rather suboptimal way. Hence, we analyzed the effects of instructional support in the form of prompts. The effects of different types of prompts were investigated in an experiment with four conditions: cognitive prompts, metacognitive prompts, a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, or no prompts (N = 84 undergraduate psychology students). We found that the prompts stimulated the elicitation of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. The provision of purely metacognitive prompts did not, however, improve learning outcomes. Only the groups who had received cognitive, or a combination of cognitive and metacognitive, prompts learned more than the control group. This effect was mediated by cognitive learning strategies. The learners in the successful groups did not perceive the prompted learning strategies as more helpful than the learners of the group without prompts. It can be concluded that cognitive prompts—alone or in combination with metacognitive prompts—are an effective means to foster learning. However, additional means should be employed in order to convince the learner of the usefulness of such prompts.
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Berthold K, Nuckles M, Renkl A. Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction. 2007;17(5):564-577.
Berthold, K., Nuckles, M., & Renkl, A. (2007). Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 564-577.
Berthold, K., Nuckles, M., and Renkl, A. (2007). Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction 17, 564-577.
Berthold, K., Nuckles, M., & Renkl, A., 2007. Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), p 564-577.
K. Berthold, M. Nuckles, and A. Renkl, “Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts”, Learning and Instruction, vol. 17, 2007, pp. 564-577.
Berthold, K., Nuckles, M., Renkl, A.: Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction. 17, 564-577 (2007).
Berthold, Kirsten, Nuckles, Matthias, and Renkl, Alexander. “Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts”. Learning and Instruction 17.5 (2007): 564-577.
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