Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins

Pedersen DS, Merkle T, Marktl B, Lildballe DL, Antosch M, Bergmann T, Tönsing K, Anselmetti D, Grasser KD (2010)
Plant Physiology 154(4): 1831-1841.

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Abstract
High mobility group (HMG) proteins of the HMGB family are chromatin-associated proteins that as architectural factors are involved in the regulation of transcription and other DNA-dependent processes. HMGB proteins are generally considered nuclear proteins, although mammalian HMGB1 can also be detected in the cytoplasm and outside of cells. Plant HMGB proteins studied so far were found exclusively in the cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescence and fluorescence microscopy of HMGB proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein, we have examined the subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 proteins, revealing that, in addition to a prominent nuclear localization, they can be detected also in the cytoplasm. The nucleocytoplasmic distribution appears to depend on the cell type. By time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, it was observed that the HMGB2 and HMGB4 proteins tagged with photoactivatable green fluorescent protein can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, while HMGB1 remains nuclear. The balance between the basic amino-terminal and the acidic carboxyl-terminal domains flanking the central HMG box DNA-binding domain critically influences the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of the HMGB proteins. Moreover, protein kinase CK2-mediated phosphorylation of the acidic tail modulates the intranuclear distribution of HMGB2. Collectively, our results show that, in contrast to other Arabidopsis HMGB proteins such as HMGB1 and HMGB5, the HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 proteins occur preferentially in the cell nucleus, but to various extents also in the cytoplasm.
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Pedersen DS, Merkle T, Marktl B, et al. Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins. Plant Physiology. 2010;154(4):1831-1841.
Pedersen, D. S., Merkle, T., Marktl, B., Lildballe, D. L., Antosch, M., Bergmann, T., Tönsing, K., et al. (2010). Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins. Plant Physiology, 154(4), 1831-1841.
Pedersen, D. S., Merkle, T., Marktl, B., Lildballe, D. L., Antosch, M., Bergmann, T., Tönsing, K., Anselmetti, D., and Grasser, K. D. (2010). Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins. Plant Physiology 154, 1831-1841.
Pedersen, D.S., et al., 2010. Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins. Plant Physiology, 154(4), p 1831-1841.
D.S. Pedersen, et al., “Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins”, Plant Physiology, vol. 154, 2010, pp. 1831-1841.
Pedersen, D.S., Merkle, T., Marktl, B., Lildballe, D.L., Antosch, M., Bergmann, T., Tönsing, K., Anselmetti, D., Grasser, K.D.: Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins. Plant Physiology. 154, 1831-1841 (2010).
Pedersen, Dorthe S., Merkle, Thomas, Marktl, Barbara, Lildballe, Dorte L., Antosch, Martin, Bergmann, Thorsten, Tönsing, Katja, Anselmetti, Dario, and Grasser, Klaus D. “Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Arabidopsis Chromatin-Associated HMGB2/3 and HMGB4 Proteins”. Plant Physiology 154.4 (2010): 1831-1841.
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