On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research

Hülsheger UR, Schewe AF (2011)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16(3): 361-389.

Journal Article | Published | English

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This article provides a quantitative review of the link of emotional labor (emotion-rule dissonance, surface acting, and deep acting) with well-being and performance outcomes. The meta-analysis is based on 494 individual correlations drawn from a final sample of 95 independent studies. Results revealed substantial relationships of emotion-rule dissonance and surface acting with indicators of impaired well-being (ρs between .39 and .48) and job attitudes (ρs between -.24 and -.40) and a small negative relationship with performance outcomes (ρs between -.20 and -.05). Overall, deep acting displayed weak relationships with indicators of impaired well-being, and job attitudes, but positive relationships with emotional performance and customer satisfaction (ρs .18 and .37). A meta-analytic regression analysis provides information on the unique contribution of emotion-rule dissonance, surface acting, and deep acting in statistically predicting well-being and performance outcomes. Furthermore, a mediation analysis confirms theoretical models of emotional labor which suggest that surface acting partially mediates the relationship of emotion-rule dissonance with well-being. Implications for future research as well as pragmatic ramifications for organizational practices are discussed in conclusion.
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Hülsheger UR, Schewe AF. On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2011;16(3):361-389.
Hülsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361-389.
Hülsheger, U. R., and Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16, 361-389.
Hülsheger, U.R., & Schewe, A.F., 2011. On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), p 361-389.
U.R. Hülsheger and A.F. Schewe, “On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 16, 2011, pp. 361-389.
Hülsheger, U.R., Schewe, A.F.: On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 16, 361-389 (2011).
Hülsheger, Ute R., and Schewe, Anna F. “On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research”. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16.3 (2011): 361-389.
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