Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets

Schmoll T, Schurr FM, Winkel W, Epplen JT, Lubjuhn T (2007)
JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 20(3): 1115-1125.

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Abstract
Females of many species mate with multiple males within a single reproductive cycle. One hypothesis to explain polyandry postulates that females benefit from increasing within-brood genetic diversity. Two mechanisms may render sire genetic diversity beneficial for females, genetic bet-hedging vs. non-bet-hedging. We analysed whether females of the socially monogamous coal tit (Parus ater) benefit via either of these mechanisms when engaging in extra-pair (i.e. polyandrous) mating. To obtain a measure of within-brood genetic diversity as a function of paternal genetic contributions, we calculated a sire diversity index based on the established Shannon-Wiener Index. In 246 broods from two consecutive years, sire genetic diversity had no effect on either the mean or the variance in brood fitness measured as offspring recruitment within 4 years after birth. The hypothesis that benefits of increasing sire diversity contribute to selection for female extra-pair mating behaviour in P. ater was therefore not supported.
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Schmoll T, Schurr FM, Winkel W, Epplen JT, Lubjuhn T. Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY. 2007;20(3):1115-1125.
Schmoll, T., Schurr, F. M., Winkel, W., Epplen, J. T., & Lubjuhn, T. (2007). Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 20(3), 1115-1125.
Schmoll, T., Schurr, F. M., Winkel, W., Epplen, J. T., and Lubjuhn, T. (2007). Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 20, 1115-1125.
Schmoll, T., et al., 2007. Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 20(3), p 1115-1125.
T. Schmoll, et al., “Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets”, JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, vol. 20, 2007, pp. 1115-1125.
Schmoll, T., Schurr, F.M., Winkel, W., Epplen, J.T., Lubjuhn, T.: Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY. 20, 1115-1125 (2007).
Schmoll, Tim, Schurr, F. M., Winkel, W., Epplen, J. T., and Lubjuhn, T. “Polyandry in coal tits Parus ater: fitness consequences of putting eggs into multiple genetic baskets”. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 20.3 (2007): 1115-1125.
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5 Citations in Europe PMC

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Extra-pair sires as identified by means of standardized across-gel comparisons of multilocus DNA fingerprints.
Schmoll T, Janzon V, Epplen JT, Lubjuhn T., Electrophoresis 24(16), 2003
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