Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant

Frank S, Keck M, Sagasser M, Niehaus K, Weisshaar B, Stracke R (2011)
Plant Biology 13(1): 42-50.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Abstract
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a class of flavonoids with numerous functions in plant ecology and development, including protection against microbial infection, animal foraging and damage by UV light. PAs are also beneficial in the human diet and livestock farming, preventing diseases of the cardiovascular system and lowering the risk of cancer, asthma and diabetes. Apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) are naturally rich in flavonoids, but the flavonoid content and composition varies significantly between cultivars. In this work, we applied knowledge from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, for which the main features of flavonoid biosynthesis have been elucidated, to investigate PA accumulation in apple. We identified functional homologues of the Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) gene TRANSPARENT TESTA12 from A. thaliana using a comparative genomics approach. MdMATE1 and MdMATE2 were differentially expressed, and the function of the encoded proteins was verified by complementation of the respective A. thaliana mutant. In addition, MdMATE genes have a different gene structure in comparison to homologues from other species. Based on our findings, we propose that MdMATE1 and MdMATE2 are vacuolar flavonoid/H(+) -antiporters, active in PA accumulating cells of apple fruit. The identification of these flavonoid transporter genes expands our understanding of secondary metabolite biosynthesis and transport in apple, and is a prerequisite to improve the nutritional value of apples and apple-derived beverages.
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Frank S, Keck M, Sagasser M, Niehaus K, Weisshaar B, Stracke R. Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant. Plant Biology. 2011;13(1):42-50.
Frank, S., Keck, M., Sagasser, M., Niehaus, K., Weisshaar, B., & Stracke, R. (2011). Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant. Plant Biology, 13(1), 42-50.
Frank, S., Keck, M., Sagasser, M., Niehaus, K., Weisshaar, B., and Stracke, R. (2011). Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant. Plant Biology 13, 42-50.
Frank, S., et al., 2011. Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant. Plant Biology, 13(1), p 42-50.
S. Frank, et al., “Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant”, Plant Biology, vol. 13, 2011, pp. 42-50.
Frank, S., Keck, M., Sagasser, M., Niehaus, K., Weisshaar, B., Stracke, R.: Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant. Plant Biology. 13, 42-50 (2011).
Frank, Sandra, Keck, Matthias, Sagasser, Martin, Niehaus, Karsten, Weisshaar, Bernd, and Stracke, Ralf. “Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant”. Plant Biology 13.1 (2011): 42-50.
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VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative proanthocyanidin transporters expressed during berry development in Vitis vinifera L.
Perez-Diaz R, Ryngajllo M, Perez-Diaz J, Pena-Cortes H, Casaretto JA, Gonzalez-Villanueva E, Ruiz-Lara S., Plant Cell Rep. 33(7), 2014
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