Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli

Sutton VR, Stubna A, Patschkowski T, Munck E, Beinert H, Kiley PJ (2004)
Biochemistry 43(3): 791-798.

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Abstract
The oxygen sensing ability of the transcription factor FNR depends on the presence of a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. In the presence of O2, conversion of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster to a [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster inactivates FNR, but the fate of the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster in cells grown under aerobic conditions is unknown. The present study shows that the predominant form of FNR in aerobic cells is apo-FNR (cluster-less FNR) indicating that the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster, like the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster, is not stable under these conditions. By quantifying the amount of [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster in 2Fe-FNR in vitro in the presence of various reductants and oxidants (GSH, DTT, cysteine, O2, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide), we found that superoxide, a byproduct of aerobic metabolism, significantly destabilized the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the effects of superoxide on 2Fe-FNR in vivo; under cellular conditions that favored superoxide production, we observed the disappearance of the signal representative of the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster. We conclude that the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR is labile to superoxide both in vitro and in vivo. This lability may explain the absence of the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster form of FNR under aerobic growth conditions.
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Sutton VR, Stubna A, Patschkowski T, Munck E, Beinert H, Kiley PJ. Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43(3):791-798.
Sutton, V. R., Stubna, A., Patschkowski, T., Munck, E., Beinert, H., & Kiley, P. J. (2004). Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry, 43(3), 791-798.
Sutton, V. R., Stubna, A., Patschkowski, T., Munck, E., Beinert, H., and Kiley, P. J. (2004). Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 43, 791-798.
Sutton, V.R., et al., 2004. Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry, 43(3), p 791-798.
V.R. Sutton, et al., “Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli”, Biochemistry, vol. 43, 2004, pp. 791-798.
Sutton, V.R., Stubna, A., Patschkowski, T., Munck, E., Beinert, H., Kiley, P.J.: Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 43, 791-798 (2004).
Sutton, V.R., Stubna, A., Patschkowski, Thomas, Munck, E., Beinert, H., and Kiley, P.J. “Superoxide destroys the [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster of FNR from Escherichia coli”. Biochemistry 43.3 (2004): 791-798.
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