Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants

Xu X, Miller SA, Baysal-Gurel F, Gartemann K-H, Eichenlaub R, Rajashekara G (2010)
APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 76(12): 3978-3988.

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Abstract
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis.
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Xu X, Miller SA, Baysal-Gurel F, Gartemann K-H, Eichenlaub R, Rajashekara G. Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. 2010;76(12):3978-3988.
Xu, X., Miller, S. A., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gartemann, K. - H., Eichenlaub, R., & Rajashekara, G. (2010). Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 76(12), 3978-3988.
Xu, X., Miller, S. A., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gartemann, K. - H., Eichenlaub, R., and Rajashekara, G. (2010). Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 76, 3978-3988.
Xu, X., et al., 2010. Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 76(12), p 3978-3988.
X. Xu, et al., “Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants”, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 76, 2010, pp. 3978-3988.
Xu, X., Miller, S.A., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gartemann, K.-H., Eichenlaub, R., Rajashekara, G.: Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. 76, 3978-3988 (2010).
Xu, Xiulan, Miller, Sally A., Baysal-Gurel, Fulya, Gartemann, Karl-Heinz, Eichenlaub, Rudolf, and Rajashekara, Gireesh. “Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants”. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 76.12 (2010): 3978-3988.
This data publication is cited in the following publications:
This publication cites the following data publications:

6 Citations in Europe PMC

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

Discovery of novel small molecule modulators of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.
Xu X, Kumar A, Deblais L, Pina-Mimbela R, Nislow C, Fuchs JR, Miller SA, Rajashekara G., Front Microbiol 6(), 2015
PMID: 26539169
Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.
Tancos MA, Chalupowicz L, Barash I, Manulis-Sasson S, Smart CD., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(22), 2013
PMID: 24014525
Colonization and movement of GFP-labeled Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis during tomato infection.
Chalupowicz L, Zellermann EM, Fluegel M, Dror O, Eichenlaub R, Gartemann KH, Savidor A, Sessa G, Iraki N, Barash I, Manulis-Sasson S., Phytopathology 102(1), 2012
PMID: 21879791

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