Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study

Kandler C, Bleidorn W, Riemann R, Spinath FM, Thiel W, Angleitner A (2010)
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 98(6): 995-1008.

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Abstract
This study analyzed the etiology of rank-order stability and change in personality over a time period of 13 years in order to explain cumulative continuity with age. NEO five-factor inventory self- and peer report data from 696 monozygotic and 387 dizygotic twin pairs reared together were analyzed using a combination of multiple-rater twin, latent state-trait, and autoregressive simplex models. Correcting for measurement error, this model disentangled genetic and environmental effects on long- and short-term convergent valid stability, on occasional influences, and on self- and peer report-specific stability. Genetic factors represented the main sources that contributed to phenotypic long-term stability of personality in young and middle adulthood, whereas change was predominantly attributable to environmental factors. Phenotypic continuity increased as a function of cumulative environmental effects, which became manifest in stable trait variance and decreasing occasion-specific effects with age. This study's findings suggest a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors resulting in the typical patterns of continuity in personality across young and middle adulthood.
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Kandler C, Bleidorn W, Riemann R, Spinath FM, Thiel W, Angleitner A. Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 2010;98(6):995-1008.
Kandler, C., Bleidorn, W., Riemann, R., Spinath, F. M., Thiel, W., & Angleitner, A. (2010). Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 98(6), 995-1008.
Kandler, C., Bleidorn, W., Riemann, R., Spinath, F. M., Thiel, W., and Angleitner, A. (2010). Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 98, 995-1008.
Kandler, C., et al., 2010. Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 98(6), p 995-1008.
C. Kandler, et al., “Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study”, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 98, 2010, pp. 995-1008.
Kandler, C., Bleidorn, W., Riemann, R., Spinath, F.M., Thiel, W., Angleitner, A.: Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 98, 995-1008 (2010).
Kandler, Christian, Bleidorn, Wiebke, Riemann, Rainer, Spinath, Frank M., Thiel, Wolfgang, and Angleitner, Alois. “Sources of cumulative continuity in personality: A longitudinal multiple-rater twin study”. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 98.6 (2010): 995-1008.
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