Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture

Gerlach JC, Witaschek T, Strobel C, Brayfield CA, Bornemann R, Catapano G, Zeilinger K (2010)
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS 33(6): 399-404.

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Abstract
The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.
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Gerlach JC, Witaschek T, Strobel C, et al. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS. 2010;33(6):399-404.
Gerlach, J. C., Witaschek, T., Strobel, C., Brayfield, C. A., Bornemann, R., Catapano, G., & Zeilinger, K. (2010). Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, 33(6), 399-404.
Gerlach, J. C., Witaschek, T., Strobel, C., Brayfield, C. A., Bornemann, R., Catapano, G., and Zeilinger, K. (2010). Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS 33, 399-404.
Gerlach, J.C., et al., 2010. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, 33(6), p 399-404.
J.C. Gerlach, et al., “Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, vol. 33, 2010, pp. 399-404.
Gerlach, J.C., Witaschek, T., Strobel, C., Brayfield, C.A., Bornemann, R., Catapano, G., Zeilinger, K.: Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS. 33, 399-404 (2010).
Gerlach, Joerg C., Witaschek, Tom, Strobel, Catrin, Brayfield, Candace A., Bornemann, Reinhard, Catapano, Gerardo, and Zeilinger, Katrin. “Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS 33.6 (2010): 399-404.
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