Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae)

Winter Y, Helversen O von, Norberg UM, Kunz TH, Steffensen JF (1993)
In: Animal plant interactions in tropical environments. Barthlott W (Ed);Bonn: 167-174.

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Barthlott, W.
Abstract
The cost of forward flight for a 11.7 g nectar-feeding bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae) was estimated to be 5.888 kJ h -1 (1.63 W). To obtain this estimate, we quantified the amount of time allocated to specific activities and the animal´s daily energy intake in captivity for 17 separate 24-hour-periods. These data were arrangedin a set of daily energy-balance equations with the energy coefficients for each activity as unknown parameters. These equations were solved for the unknown coefficients b ymultiple lonear regression analysis. Using our estimate of flight cost and values for daily energy expenditure from the literature, we estimated how a free-ranging nectar-feeding bat allocates time and energy among different activities.
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Winter Y, Helversen O von, Norberg UM, Kunz TH, Steffensen JF. Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae). In: Barthlott W, ed. Animal plant interactions in tropical environments. Bonn; 1993: 167-174.
Winter, Y., Helversen, O. von, Norberg, U. M., Kunz, T. H., & Steffensen, J. F. (1993). Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae). In W. Barthlott (Ed.), Animal plant interactions in tropical environments (pp. 167-174). Bonn.
Winter, Y., Helversen, O. von, Norberg, U. M., Kunz, T. H., and Steffensen, J. F. (1993). “Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae)” in Animal plant interactions in tropical environments, ed. W. Barthlott (Bonn), 167-174.
Winter, Y., et al., 1993. Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae). In W. Barthlott, ed. Animal plant interactions in tropical environments. Bonn, pp. 167-174.
Y. Winter, et al., “Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae)”, Animal plant interactions in tropical environments, W. Barthlott, ed., Bonn: 1993, pp.167-174.
Winter, Y., Helversen, O. von, Norberg, U.M., Kunz, T.H., Steffensen, J.F.: Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae). In: Barthlott, W. (ed.) Animal plant interactions in tropical environments. p. 167-174. Bonn (1993).
Winter, York, Helversen, Otto von, Norberg, Ulla M., Kunz, Thomas H., and Steffensen, John Fleng. “Flight cost and economy of nectar-feeding in the bat Glossophaga Soricina (Phyllostomidae; Glossophaginae)”. Animal plant interactions in tropical environments. Ed. W. Barthlott. Bonn, 1993. 167-174.
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