In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag

Levine LE, Reiss G, Smith DA (1993)
Physical Review, B 48(2): 858-863.

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The mass-transport mechanisms that are responsible for the early stages (resistance change <1 percent) of electromigration damage in metals are poorly understood. A deeper understanding of these processes is important both for the direct application to metal lines in electronic devices and for expanding our basic knowledge of these complex phenomena. A major reason for our lack of understanding is that the structural changes that must take place during early-stage electromigration occur at extremely small length scales that are beyond the resolution capabilities of conventional electromigration experiments. We report in situ studies of early-stage electromigration using scanning tunneling microscopy. A single 2-my square region of a 2100-Å Ag film was studied under UHV conditions for over 200 h with current densities up to 4.5×10 to the power of 4 A/cm2. Although the temperature and resistivity of the sample remained nearly constant throughout this period, significant small-scale morphology changes occurred that were a result of the applied current.
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Levine LE, Reiss G, Smith DA. In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag. Physical Review, B. 1993;48(2):858-863.
Levine, L. E., Reiss, G., & Smith, D. A. (1993). In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag. Physical Review, B, 48(2), 858-863.
Levine, L. E., Reiss, G., and Smith, D. A. (1993). In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag. Physical Review, B 48, 858-863.
Levine, L.E., Reiss, G., & Smith, D.A., 1993. In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag. Physical Review, B, 48(2), p 858-863.
L.E. Levine, G. Reiss, and D.A. Smith, “In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag”, Physical Review, B, vol. 48, 1993, pp. 858-863.
Levine, L.E., Reiss, G., Smith, D.A.: In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag. Physical Review, B. 48, 858-863 (1993).
Levine, L. E., Reiss, Günter, and Smith, D. A. “In situ scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of early-stage electromigration in Ag”. Physical Review, B 48.2 (1993): 858-863.
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