Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films

Reiss G, Levine LE, Smith DA (1993)
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 11(1): 108-111.

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Abstract
High resolution in situ imaging of metal surfaces during annealing and/or current transport is of great interest both for the application of metal lines in electronic devices and for extending our basic knowledge of the related complex physical phenomena. Due to its high resolution, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a promising tool for in situ investigations of the structural changes of metals with respect to temperature (annealing) and current transport (electromigration). In this article, the instrumental modifications necessary for in situ scanning tunneling microscopy of heated and/or current carrying thin films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions are discussed. Using results obtained on Ag films, the ability of our STM to image the surface dynamically is demonstrated, while structural changes induced by the current transport are taking place.
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Reiss G, Levine LE, Smith DA. Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures. 1993;11(1):108-111.
Reiss, G., Levine, L. E., & Smith, D. A. (1993). Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, 11(1), 108-111.
Reiss, G., Levine, L. E., and Smith, D. A. (1993). Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 11, 108-111.
Reiss, G., Levine, L.E., & Smith, D.A., 1993. Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, 11(1), p 108-111.
G. Reiss, L.E. Levine, and D.A. Smith, “Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, vol. 11, 1993, pp. 108-111.
Reiss, G., Levine, L.E., Smith, D.A.: Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures. 11, 108-111 (1993).
Reiss, Günter, Levine, L. E., and Smith, D. A. “Ultrahigh vacuum scanning-tunneling microscope for in situ studies of annealing and electromigration behavior of thin films”. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 11.1 (1993): 108-111.
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