Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films

Hornauer H, Vancea J, Reiss G, Hoffmann H (1989)
Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter 77(3): 399-407.

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The work function of metallic thin films limited by symmetric surfaces is expected to be thickness dependent at a level of 0.1 eV and a thickness range of about 5 nm. Recent experiments, however, demonstrated that Cu films on glass or Ni substrates show a long ranging (10–20 nm) increase of the work function with increasing film thickness [1]. This effect was attributed to a violation of local charge neutrality in films with unlike surfaces. In this paper we show that the barrier height of thin film diodes like metal-insulator-metal (MIM)-, metal-semiconductor (Schottky contacts)-and metal-vacuum-metal (Kelvin capacitors) structures decreases with increasing thickness of one metal electrode. This metal electrode consists of a double layer whose single layer thicknesses are of the order of few tens of nm. The observed effect can be attributed to a decrease of the work function at the counter limiting interface not exposed to the evaporation beam. A possible explanation can be found again in the violation of the local charge neutrality in films with unlike surfaces.
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Hornauer H, Vancea J, Reiss G, Hoffmann H. Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films. Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter. 1989;77(3):399-407.
Hornauer, H., Vancea, J., Reiss, G., & Hoffmann, H. (1989). Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films. Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter, 77(3), 399-407.
Hornauer, H., Vancea, J., Reiss, G., and Hoffmann, H. (1989). Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films. Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter 77, 399-407.
Hornauer, H., et al., 1989. Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films. Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter, 77(3), p 399-407.
H. Hornauer, et al., “Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films”, Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter, vol. 77, 1989, pp. 399-407.
Hornauer, H., Vancea, J., Reiss, G., Hoffmann, H.: Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films. Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter. 77, 399-407 (1989).
Hornauer, Hans, Vancea, Johann, Reiss, Günter, and Hoffmann, Horst. “Thickness dependence of the work function in double-layer metallic films”. Zeitschrift für Physik, B: Condensed Matter 77.3 (1989): 399-407.
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