Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains

Giuntini E, Mengoni A, De Filippo C, Cavalieri D, Aubin-Horth N, Landry CR, Becker A, Bazzicalupo M (2005)
BMC Genomics 6(1).

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Abstract
Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium that forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants such as alfalfa ( Medicago sativa). This species occupies different ecological niches, being present as a free-living soil bacterium and as a symbiont of plant root nodules. The genome of the type strain Rm 1021 contains one chromosome and two megaplasmids for a total genome size of 6 Mb. We applied comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on an oligonucleotide microarrays to estimate genetic variation at the genomic level in four natural strains, two isolated from Italian agricultural soil and two from desert soil in the Aral Sea region. Results: From 4.6 to 5.7 percent of the genes showed a pattern of hybridisation concordant with deletion, nucleotide divergence or ORF duplication when compared to the type strain Rm 1021. A large number of these polymorphisms were confirmed by sequencing and Southern blot. A statistically significant fraction of these variable genes was found on the pSymA megaplasmid and grouped in clusters. These variable genes were found to be mainly transposases or genes with unknown function. Conclusion: The obtained results allow to conclude that the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA can be considered the major hot-spot for intra-specific differentiation in S. meliloti.
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Giuntini E, Mengoni A, De Filippo C, et al. Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains. BMC Genomics. 2005;6(1).
Giuntini, E., Mengoni, A., De Filippo, C., Cavalieri, D., Aubin-Horth, N., Landry, C. R., Becker, A., et al. (2005). Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains. BMC Genomics, 6(1).
Giuntini, E., Mengoni, A., De Filippo, C., Cavalieri, D., Aubin-Horth, N., Landry, C. R., Becker, A., and Bazzicalupo, M. (2005). Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains. BMC Genomics 6.
Giuntini, E., et al., 2005. Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains. BMC Genomics, 6(1).
E. Giuntini, et al., “Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains”, BMC Genomics, vol. 6, 2005.
Giuntini, E., Mengoni, A., De Filippo, C., Cavalieri, D., Aubin-Horth, N., Landry, C.R., Becker, A., Bazzicalupo, M.: Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains. BMC Genomics. 6, (2005).
Giuntini, Elisa, Mengoni, Alessio, De Filippo, Carlotta, Cavalieri, Duccio, Aubin-Horth, Nadia, Landry, Christian R., Becker, Anke, and Bazzicalupo, Marco. “Large-scale genetic variation of the symbiosis-required megaplasmid pSymA revealed by comparative genomic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti natural strains”. BMC Genomics 6.1 (2005).
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Linear models and empirical Bayes methods for assessing differential expression in microarray experiments
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