Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect

Schmitz J, Büschges A, Kittmann R (1991)
J.Neurobiol. 22(9): 907-921.

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Nonspiking interneurons were investigated in a tethered, walking insect, Carausius morosus, that was able to freely perform walking movements. Experiments were carried out with animals walking on a lightweight, double-wheel treadmill. Although the animal was opened dorsally, the walking system was left intact. Intracellular recordings were obtained from the dorsal posterior neuropil of the mesothoracic ganglion. Nonspiking interneurons, in which modulations of the membrane potential were correlated with the walking rhythm, were described physiologically and stained with Lucifer Yellow. Interneurons are demonstrated in which membrane potential oscillations mirror the leg position or show correlation with the motoneuronal activity of the protractor and retractor coxae muscles during walking. Other interneurons showed distinct hyperpolarizations at certain important trigger points in the step cycle, for example, at the extreme posterior position. Through electrical stimulation of single, nonspiking interneurons during walking, the motoneuronal activity in two antagonistic muscles-protractor and retractor coxae-could be reversed and even the movement of the ipsilateral leg could be influenced. The nonspiking interneurons described appear to be important premotor elements involved in walking. They receive, integrate, and process information from different leg proprioceptors and drive groups of leg motoneurons during walking.
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Schmitz J, Büschges A, Kittmann R. Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect. J.Neurobiol. 1991;22(9):907-921.
Schmitz, J., Büschges, A., & Kittmann, R. (1991). Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect. J.Neurobiol., 22(9), 907-921.
Schmitz, J., Büschges, A., and Kittmann, R. (1991). Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect. J.Neurobiol. 22, 907-921.
Schmitz, J., Büschges, A., & Kittmann, R., 1991. Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect. J.Neurobiol., 22(9), p 907-921.
J. Schmitz, A. Büschges, and R. Kittmann, “Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect”, J.Neurobiol., vol. 22, 1991, pp. 907-921.
Schmitz, J., Büschges, A., Kittmann, R.: Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect. J.Neurobiol. 22, 907-921 (1991).
Schmitz, Josef, Büschges, A., and Kittmann, R. “Intracellular recordings from nonspiking interneurons in a semiintact, tethered walking insect”. J.Neurobiol. 22.9 (1991): 907-921.
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