# Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model

Levy J, Cruse H (2008) *Journal of Comparative Physiology A* 194(8): 735-750.

Download

**No fulltext has been uploaded. References only!**

*Journal Article*|

*Original Article*|

*Published*|

*English*

No fulltext has been uploaded

Author

Levy, Jeremy
;
Cruse, Holk

^{UniBi}Department

Abstract

What strategies may insects use when controlling redundant degrees of freedom? We investigate this question in standing stick insects. Specifically, the question is addressed how the changes of the torques are coordinated that are produced by the 18 leg joints in a still standing animal. Using a generalization of the principal component analysis, three coordination rules have been identified. These rules are sufficient to describe more than half of the variation observed in the data. To move from a descriptive approach to hypotheses on how the neuronal system may be structured, two simulation approaches are proposed. In both cases, torques are decreased by randomly selected values. In the first simulation, the coordination rules derived from the principal components are used to produce changes in torques. In the second simulation, the individual joint torques are modified using a simple local approach. In both approaches, the resulting torques are readjusted by Integral controllers applied in each joint. The results show that the torque distribution problem can be solved by a local approach without requiring a body model.

Keywords

joint torque
;
Simulation
;
leg
;
principal component analysis
;
model
;
JOINT
;
insect
;
distribution
;
coordination
;
Controller
;
COMPONENTS
;
torque
;
Animal
;
force distribution
;
Stick Insect
;
system
;
COMPONENT
;
body
;
analysis
;
Principal Component

Publishing Year

ISSN

PUB-ID

### Cite this

Levy J, Cruse H. Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model.

*Journal of Comparative Physiology A*. 2008;194(8):735-750.Levy, J., & Cruse, H. (2008). Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model.

*Journal of Comparative Physiology A*,*194*(8), 735-750. doi:10.1007/s00359-008-0348-Levy, J., and Cruse, H. (2008). Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model.

*Journal of Comparative Physiology A*194, 735-750.Levy, J., & Cruse, H., 2008. Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model.

*Journal of Comparative Physiology A*, 194(8), p 735-750. J. Levy and H. Cruse, “Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model”,

*Journal of Comparative Physiology A*, vol. 194, 2008, pp. 735-750. Levy, J., Cruse, H.: Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 194, 735-750 (2008).

Levy, Jeremy, and Cruse, Holk. “Controlling a system with redundant degrees of freedom: II. Solution of the force distribution problem without a body model”.

*Journal of Comparative Physiology A*194.8 (2008): 735-750.
This data publication is cited in the following publications:

This publication cites the following data publications:

### 4 Citations in Europe PMC

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

Leg-local neural mechanisms for searching and learning enhance robotic locomotion.

Szczecinski NS, Quinn RD.,

PMID: 28782078

Szczecinski NS, Quinn RD.,

*Biol Cybern*(), 2017PMID: 28782078

A Functional Subnetwork Approach to Designing Synthetic Nervous Systems That Control Legged Robot Locomotion.

Szczecinski NS, Hunt AJ, Quinn RD.,

PMID: 28848419

Szczecinski NS, Hunt AJ, Quinn RD.,

*Front Neurorobot*11(), 2017PMID: 28848419

Walknet, a bio-inspired controller for hexapod walking.

Schilling M, Hoinville T, Schmitz J, Cruse H.,

PMID: 23824506

Schilling M, Hoinville T, Schmitz J, Cruse H.,

*Biol Cybern*107(4), 2013PMID: 23824506

Deriving neural network controllers from neuro-biological data: implementation of a single-leg stick insect controller.

von Twickel A, Büschges A, Pasemann F.,

PMID: 21327828

von Twickel A, Büschges A, Pasemann F.,

*Biol Cybern*104(1-2), 2011PMID: 21327828

### 34 References

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0

The effect of movement direction on joint torque covariation.

Shemmell J, Hasan Z, Gottlieb GL, Corcos DM.,

PMID: 16850324

Shemmell J, Hasan Z, Gottlieb GL, Corcos DM.,

*Exp Brain Res*176(1), 2007PMID: 16850324

Optimal feedback control as a theory of motor coordination.

Todorov E, Jordan MI.,

PMID: 12404008

Todorov E, Jordan MI.,

*Nat. Neurosci.*5(11), 2002PMID: 12404008

From task parameters to motor synergies: A hierarchical framework for approximately-optimal control of redundant manipulators.

Todorov E, Li W, Pan X.,

PMID: 17710121

Todorov E, Li W, Pan X.,

*J Robot Syst*22(11), 2005PMID: 17710121

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0

Some mathematical notes on three-mode factor analysis.

Tucker LR.,

PMID: 5221127

Tucker LR.,

*Psychometrika*31(3), 1966PMID: 5221127

Cooperative selection of movements: the optimal selection model.

Vaughan J, Rosenbaum DA, Diedrich FJ, Moore CM.,

PMID: 8643808

Vaughan J, Rosenbaum DA, Diedrich FJ, Moore CM.,

*Psychol Res*58(4), 1996PMID: 8643808

Muscle synergies during voluntary body sway: combining across-trials and within-a-trial analyses.

Wang Y, Asaka T, Zatsiorsky VM, Latash ML.,

PMID: 16710681

Wang Y, Asaka T, Zatsiorsky VM, Latash ML.,

*Exp Brain Res*174(4), 2006PMID: 16710681

### Export

0 Marked Publications### Web of Science

View record in Web of Science®### Sources

PMID: 18642004

PubMed | Europe PMC